The uniseriate exocarp
of both species shows cells with thin walls and cuticles.
Fragments of exocarp
were found at the feeding station on numerous occasions during both periods of the study.
Since dry matter was highest in the exocarp
and mesocarp of the nuts from the tolerant clones and proanthocyanidines were highest in the endocarp, the nutborer larvae have to overcome first a physical barrier followed by a chemical barrier to feed on macadamia nuts.
Drupe fruits are formed of red exocarp
, edible fleshy mesocarp, and stony endocarp with 1-2 seeds.
This system consists of a peripheral network in the outer part of the mesocarp, near the exocarp
, and a larger axial bundle supplying the seeds.
Due to its fibrous pericarp and mealy flesh, the free water in the deeper tissues of the fruit was lost at the same rate as the water in the more superficial tissues closer to the exocarp
One seeded ovoid drupe, exocarp
and mesocarp fused and indistinguishable one from another; three external longitudinal grooves delimiting three valves, endocarp thin, not sculptured; apical stigmatic remains; one locule, seed deltoid; endosperm homogeneous and ruminate; apical germination pore and basal hilum.
Scatter-hoarded seeds had the exocarp
previously removed and were buried 1-4 cm deep, with the germinative pore turned down.
8 cm in diameter, often with abortive carpels visible and more or less developed, exocarp
nearly smooth when fresh, red at maturity, dotted with lenticels, perianth with triangular petals, staminodes triangular, obtuse at apex, to 2 mm long, sometimes with abortive anther.
is uniseriate and presents stomata and pluricellular glandular trichomes.
A physical dormancy might be facilitated by the existence of a hard exocarp
(Baskin & Baskin 1989) as observed in C.
Food categories applied to stomach contents were: (1) fruits and seeds-remains of testa, endosperm, exocarp
, or individual minute seeds; (2) green foliage-leaf or stem tissues; (3) larval insects-nonsclerotized soft-bodies; (4) adult insects-sclerotized parts such as antennae, elytra, mouthparts, wings, or appendages; and (5) animal matter-primarily muscle tissue and hair.
The pericarp usually has an outer exocarp
, a middle mesocarp layer, and an inner endocarp.
Fruit is a pepo, having leathery or hard exocarp
In the dry processing method, the whole cherry is dried to allow the separation of the bean from the exocarp