The appellate court agreed that an exaction
of private property is valid only if it is reasonably related to needs created by the subject development.
But rural Wales, too, was subject to social unrest, and between 1839 and 1843 the Rebecca Riots, directed against the exaction
of road tolls, demonstrated the problems of the tenant farmers of West Wales.
After an introductory chapter that distinguishes between central and local states, each with its own agenda and related challenges, the authors identify in chapter 2 similarities and differences between state exaction
from the countryside in the Maoist era and in late imperial and Republican times.
In other words, "a State need not provide [a] predeprivation process for the exaction
California Coastal Commission, (104) one of the leading exaction
cases, the California Coastal Commission had conditioned the granting of a development permit for the Nollans' beachfront property on the Nollans' yielding an easement to the public over their property.
Attacked or slighted, Kipling himself was by no means innocent of the exaction
of literary revenge.
Initially, new inhabitants preferred individualist agriculture, resisted the exaction
of a relatively benign seigneurial systems, and speculated in land.
It falls most heavily on landless laborers and the poorer sections of the population, which depend on hiring out their labor for subsistence and generally have no means to comply with various money demands made by the authorities in lieu of, or over and above, the exaction
of forced labor.
In Fischel's view, the Coastal Commission's exaction
was a negative example of deal-making: "The 'bargain' between the coastal commission and Nollan was so one-sided as to be unconscionable.
And it prohibits any government system of mandatory taxation for any purpose whatsoever because it would be a forced exaction
urge us to have compassion for and be charitable to the less fortunate, even to the extent of selling what we have accumulated and giving to the poor, to join the wretched of the earth in their claims against the productive, to cease the pursuit of economic value, to take the time to smell the flowers, to use the coercive powers of politics to protect the wilderness against economic exploitation, to assist the efforts of political majorities in the exaction
of tribute from those members of the minority who do indeed practice the Puritan virtues [p.
Like any other exaction
, a fine does more than raise revenue: It also discourages the taxed activity.
Contract awarded for Gokgyocheon exaction
, vermilion Earth River Environmental Improvement Project
41) the court explained that per se regulatory takings fall into three categories: Loretto, (42) where the government causes a total, permanent physical invasion of real property; Lucas, (43) where a government regulation deprives a property owner of all economically beneficial use of his real property; and Nollan-Dolan, (44) where the government grants a benefit in exchange for an exaction
Rights group Migrante-UAE called the bill another form of state exaction