Table 1: Risk of overweight and obesity related to eutrophy
in sociodemographic variables of Japanese-Brazilian individuals.
Although the predominance of eutrophy
is a positive result since it reveals a good physiological development, it must be highlighted that the study showed a high percentage of overweight/obesity (35%), acknowledged as a major risk for cardiovascular diseases.
The limits defined were: Oligotrophy: TSI < 44; Mesotrophy: 44 < TSI > 54; Eutrophy
: TSI > 54.
A range between 30-50 is usually associated with the mesotrophy (moderate productivity); index values greater than 50 are associated with eutrophy
(highly productivity); values less than 30 are associated with oligotrophy (low productivity).
Orthophosphate is the most bio-available form of P, and therefore, its potential to eutrophy
coastal waterways is likely to be high by entry of runoff from farming regimes similar to those of our study.
(2001) showed that benthic algal dynamics can significantly influence sediment-water nutrient fluxes, particularly ammonium, in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor, which may sustain system eutrophy
-- BMI higher than 22 kg/[m.sup.2] and lower than 27 kg/[m.sup.2] -- Eutrophy
The score for [Z.sub.s] was well within the eutrophic range (SPEA 2006); however, the TSI based on CHA measurements was at the boundary of mesotrophy and eutrophy
(Carlson 1977; Carlson & Simpson 1996).
In addition to the effect on global warming, the nitrogen gases produced from fertiliser can acidify soils, eutrophy
lakes, rivers, and estuaries, decrease biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems, affect atmospheric visibility, reduce the stratospheric ozone layer that protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation, and increase ozone concentrations in the troposphere with consequent health effects (Peoples et al.
By analyses in Pihu & Haberman (2001), the average values of biomass indicate moderate eutrophy
Some of the total nitrogen values are typical of eutrophy
. The proportion of soluble N[O.sub.2] and N[O.sub.3] varies from 2% to 68% of the total nitrogen.
The degree of eutrophy
or oligotrophy in an area also determines its algal population, because in eutrophic situations fast-growing opportunistic seaweeds eliminate the more mature populations of larger and usually slower-growing seaweeds.
Tokeshi (1995) reviewed the literature on chironomid production from both lentic and lotic systems and suggested that production values of 8-32 g[center dot][m.sup.-2][center dot][yr.sup.-1] be considered as high productivity (eutrophy
) and those [greater than]32 g[center dot][m.sup.-2][center dot][yr.sup.-1] be considered as extremely productive situations (hypereutrophy).
They, in turn, borrowed it even earlier from medicine, where eutrophy
meant healthy or adequate nutrition or development.
Variables N % 95% CI Body mass index * Low weight 3 0.5 0.1 - 1.5 Eutrophy
96 15.2 12.6 - 18.3 Overweight 222 35.2 31.5 - 39.1 Obesity 309 49.1 45.1 - 53.0 Mean (95% CI) 30.3 (26.6 - 33.9) Waist circumference * High 484 87.2 84.1 - 89.8 Normal 71 12.8 10.2 - 15.9 Mean (95% CI) 96.5 (89.0 - 104.0) Neck circumference * High 252 57.5 52.7 - 62.2 Normal 187 42.5 37.8 - 47.3 Mean (95% CI) 35.4 (33.0 - 37.1) Conicity index * High 464 85.5 82.1 - 88.2 Normal 79 14.5 11.7 - 17.9 Mean (95% CI) 1.26 (1.23 - 1.34) n--number of individuals; 95% CI--95% confidence interval; * n total is different according to the number of respondents.