Such criticism is most convincing in connection with living things, and the injunction to study them ethologically
, in their natural atmospheres, becomes more compelling as their behavior becomes more nuanced and reflective.
In our time the idea of the "unnatural" has replaced the idea of the demonic, and for some it does not matter whether or not animals are abused, since keeping and training them is itself "unnatural" or "ethologically
inappropriate," as though it were unnatural to develop the mind.
Environment (not 'world') is understood ethologically
as implicating the sensorimotor capacities and evolutionary history of animal life.
The overall objective of the research discussed in this paper was to demonstrate that unconditioned fear, conditioned fear, and fear sensitization are processes that are not unique to artificial-laboratory stimuli (e.g., tones) and stressors (e.g., electric shock), but they also occur when animals are subjects in experiments using natural, or ethologically
relevant, stimuli and stressors.
Some of these stressors ate ethologically
sound (i.e., they represent situations that the animal would ordinarily encounter in its natural environment and for which it may have developed natural, evolutionary defenses).
This method is not only physiologically but ethologically
Cold desert animals are well adapted physiologically and ethologically
to resist the seasons when the climate is unfavorable and food is short.
Failures to demonstrate equivalence in nonhumans may appear to support the naming hypothesis however, some have argued that species specific variables may be involved in this failure and that methodological refinements are required for these such as more ethologically
For instance, this is nicely shown by Thelen in her earlier ethologically
orientated studies (1979) where she studied the occurrence of rhythmical behaviors like kicking, rocking, arm waving and banging in natural settings.
It is tempting to see the rituals of male urination, ethologically
speaking, as a form of territorial behavior.
They do not of course consider human ritual ethologically
(i.e., as it resembles animal ritualized behavior).