The prevalence of exotropia, esotropia
, intermittent, paralytic strabismus, Brown syndrome and Duane Refraction
The patient exhibited a chin down head position and had torsional diplopia as well as V-pattern esotropia
of 12 prism diopters on downgaze.
Westall et al., "Dynamic fusional vergence eye movements in congenital esotropia
," Open Ophthalmology Journal, vol.
, myopia, strabismus, and blepharitis are common ophthalmologic conditions associated with DS, (1) as is the rarer keratoconus, or anterior bulging of the cornea.
The authors also described 8 other patients with FXS and a Prader-Willi syndrome- like phenotype Esotropia
1 (i) Hatton et al.
Other facial characteristics are hypertelorism, rounded palpebral fissures, esotropia
, wide and flattened ear lobes, and downturned corners of the mouth (11).
Spasm of the near reflex is one cause for esotropia
. Organic disorders causing esotropia
include conditions such as abducens palsy, tonic convergence spasm (part of dorsal midbrain syndrome), pons lesions in multiple sclerosis,  myasthenia gravis and Wernicke's encephalopathy.
On the last ophthalmologic examination, he had ocular alignment on the level of small angle exotropia and associated hypertropia and occasionally even small angle esotropia
(4,5) In addition, the clinical prevalence of esotropia
and anisometropia is of significance.
Objective: To determine the prognostic factors affecting stereoacuity in patients with refractive accommodative esotropia
(RAE) according to the results of long follow- up period.
Despite its association with accommodative esotropia
and amblyopia, there is no consensus among eye care professionals on the cut-off point or the age at which correction should be prescribed (2).
She was also prescribed corrective lenses for congenital left esotropia
* Watch the uncovered eye for any movement as it takes up fixation: inward movement indicates exotropia and outward movement esotropia
Neonatal ocular misalignments reflect vergence development but rarely become esotropia
. British Journal of Ophthalmology 87: 1146-150.
Of the study population, 25 (69.4%) had associated exotropia (mean PD 24.84 +- 20.05) and 7 (19.4%) patients had esotropia
(mean PD 15.28 +- 7.22), while 4 (11.1%) patients had no horizontal deviation.