The chapter on 'uzla in Ibn al-Mubarak's (118-181/736-797) Kitab al-zuhd, described as "le plus vieil ecrit dans l'histoire du mysticisme musulman qui nous soit parvenu," (24) relates from Abu al-Darda' a figurative reference to 'uzla as a permissible form of eremitism
in a manner that closely echoes the Prophetic hadiths on reclusion: "What a wonderful hermitage for the Muslim his house is (ni'ma sawma'atu al-mar'i al-muslimi baytuh)!" (25)
The piece combines eremitism
, poetry, and art in much the same spirit as the Chinese literati.
One of the paradoxes of eremitism
as a phenomenon is that, whether one is thinking of recluses shut into cells abutting parish churches of anchorites in remote wildernesses, hermits needed the world.
Specific topics include eremitism
(solitary monasticism) and the pastoral in the 17th century poetry of Ruan Dacheng; the textual and visual modes of production of a particular publishing house, the relationship between language reforms and social change in the Republican era (1911-1949), and women's publishing ventures as a means of rewriting literary history.
, or the search for solitude as undertaken by the first monks in the Egyptian desert, is compared to the rest cure prescribed by the American doctor Silas Weir Mitchell.
as the necessary corrective to cenobitism (and vice versa), see Harpham (21-28).
For example, I am still unsure how Brant's devotion to Onuphrius was specifically "humanist," rather than more of the same fifteenth-century interest in eremitism
that can be noted in the case of, say, Nikolaus von Flue.
Cass is nonetheless astute in distinguishing feminine eremitism
from Western solitude, which "is essentially a masculine trait" (p.
Following these persecutions eremitism
developed and in its turn made its mark on the Copts' religious identity.
19), Crampton speaks about "hermitism": aside from the fact that there is no such word (the correct designation being "eremitism
"), living as a hermit has never been condemned as a heresy, whether in western or in eastern Christianity.
Given the centrality of politics to Berkowitz's own definition of eremitism
in China, however, there is also a sense in which the most thoroughly "genuine" recluses--those who were sincerely uninterested in politics, and who disappeared into the mountain grottoes to pursue their own private agendas--may also have been, oddly enough, somewhat peripheral to the history of Chinese reclusion.
On the other hand, an unusual non-ascetic eremitism
has a history in China that precedes Buddhism.
The indigenous Chinese understanding of eremitism
included none of these provisions and is based on an entirely different understanding for the meaning of separation from society.
Voobus) to believe that Syrian asceticism originated in Manichaeism or in Egyptian eremitism
(as claimed by the author[s] of a late Syrian tradition embodied in the legend of Mar Awgen).
Third, since famous texts on "filial piety" from at least Ch'in times had emphasized the importance of "keeping one's body intact" (pao-ch'uan), filial devotion justified, even glorified, the refusal to serve in state office, if any conceivable danger were involved.(73) Keeping one's body intact ultimately justified eremitism
, the decision to withdraw from society altogether in times of chaos.(74)