Rumah, as well as Jennifer Linden, PhD, Yinghua Ma, PhD, and Myat Lin Oo, PhD, is conducting experiments to test the epsilon toxin hypothesis.
perfringens B strain, one of the subtypes that produces epsilon toxin, led to the death of oligodendrocytes and to loss of myelin, mimicking the changes seen in MS.
perfringens A, which causes a foodborne diarrheal illness but does not make epsilon toxin.
Vartanian, "and much more work needs to be done to determine whether epsilon toxin is a trigger for MS, and precisely how humans become exposed.
Vartanian and his team are in the early stages of developing a sensitive blood test for exposure to epsilon toxin, something that is very difficult to measure currently.
Epsilon toxin results in the increased vascular permeability and absorbed through the intestinal mucosa and then spread to all organs by blood circulation causing accumulation of fluid in different organs (Khan et al.
Similarily, It has been reported (Buxton and Morgan, 1976) that epsilon toxin reacts with specific receptor on the cells, caused the degenerative changes in the vascular endothelial cells, resulted alternations in fluid dynamic.
The increase in osmolality was thought to be a product of the increase in urea and glucose concentration which resulted the vascular damage by epsilon toxin led to loss of fluid into tissues and cavities (Zerbini and Ossiprandi, 2009).
DISCUSSION Alpha and epsilon toxins of the Clostridium perfringens type D are considered to be the major toxins, involved in the disease pathogensis in sheep.