9) These cytokines, especially interleukin-17 and tumour necrosis factor, are also powerful stimulators of keratinocyte proliferation and thus produce the effects seen in the epidermal layer
of patients with psoriasis.
2) The stratum corneum is most impermeable against hydrophilic agents, whereas the subjacent epidermal layers
are most impermeable against highly lipophilic agents.
In treated group epidermal layers
were not evidently discernible and there appeared to be gaps betweenthe cells which were presumably due to accumulation of inter cellular matrix.
Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious and pruritic acariosis of skin caused by Sarcoptes scabiei which inflicts damage mainly by piercing skin, sucking lymph and feeding on young epidermal cells resulting in formation of tunnels within upper epidermal layers
(Ibrahim and Abu-Samra, 1987).
The 3 om high-resolution solution, which can be adapted to all skin types, provides views in all three dimensions of the epidermal layers
and the dermal-epidermal junction down to the upper part of collagen tissue.
Lipids are produced by the epidermal cells and excreted into the intercellular spaces to form the well-known 'bricks and mortar' arrangement in the upper epidermal layers
(the cells are the bricks and the lipids form the mortar) where they make a major contribution to the epidermal barrier as well as protecting against bacteria and other infections.
The Bio Qi products include Bamboo Salt Facial Cleanser and Toner ($15), which washes and deeply penetrates pores to cleanse (bamboo salt is said to have twice the antibacterial effect of regular salt); Rejuvenating Serum ($20), which hydrates, regenerates and repairs the skin using green tea; Rejuvenating Antioxidant Cream ($20), which increases cellular energy, preserves moisture balance, and tightens and tones skin; and Microdermabrasion Scrub ($15), which exfoliates the epidermal layers
to protect skin from free-radical damage.
Firms such as L'Oreal are already developing anti-ageing creams that use nanomaterials to deliver ingredients to lower epidermal layers
of the skin," explains Mr Cash.
In fact, a complete cutaneous repair consisting in neodermis formation and restoration of epidermal layers
was observed in Opuntia-treated wounds, while vehicle-treated wounds, at the same time, showed still a thick granulation tissue and no epidermis production.