entrain

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The new model is that the female perceives environmental cycles and entrains the endogenous rhythms in the embryos, which hatch rhythmically.
Thus, the model for the circadian rhythm of larval release by subtidal crabs is that the ovigerous female has a well-developed visual system, which perceives the light-dark cycle and which entrains a circadian rhythm in the female.
1986) and hydrostatic pressure (Forward and Bourla, 2008) can entrain circatidal rhythms.
sayi, then another question arises: How does the female entrain the rhythm in her embryos?
Preliminary experiments found that three diel cycles was sufficient to entrain the rhythm to a new photoperiod, which was reversed in timing from the ambient cycle.
It also meant that ''feeding cycles can entrain the liver independently of the SCN and the light cycle,'' the study said.
For the endogenous rhythm to develop in the embryos, it is assumed that the embryos' sensory systems become functional toward the end of development, and the rhythm develops as they entrain to external environmental cycles (Forward, 1987).
Second, the embryos must he able to entrain to the light/dark cycle independently of the female.
Eye pigment development was evident in em-bryos about 4-5 days before egg hatching, which suggests that young embryos could not perceive and entrain to the light/dark cycle with their eyes.
In contrast, larval release by females lacking both eyes did not entrain to the new light/dark cycle (Fig.
Genes were selected both from the suprachiasmatic nucleus pathway that entrains the mammalian master circadian pacemaker (Van Gelder, 2005b) and from the Drosophila lateral neuron pacemaker (Van Gelder, 2005a).
In many animals the nonvisual photopigment melanopsin/opn4 entrains circadian networks, but this gene has not been described in cnidarians.
Also, despite its dimness, moonlight has been shown to be strong enough to entrain circadian pacemakers in terrestrial animals (Evans et al.