and small brachiopods (Novocrania anomala and Macandrevia cranium), whole-body tissue was employed; for larger brachiopods (Glottidia pyramidata, Hemithris psittacea, and Laqueus californicus), extractions focused on mantle and muscle; for the solenogaster (a.
However this reinterpretation of Cotyledion tylodes as an entoproct places the fossil record of this group in the earlier Cambrian period.
Experts thought that Cotyledion tylodes may have belonged to the jellyfish-like cnidarian group, but new anatomical evidence from the animal's fossilised remains suggests the species was an early member of the group of small marine organisms called entoprocts.
On the morphology and reproduction of entoproct
The solitary entoproct
Loxoso-mella elegans broods its eggs, which have a diameter of about 50 [micro]m.
Detailed ultrastructural investigation of the entoproct
creeping larva revealed a number of shared characters with the molluscan groundpat-tern, including a distinct creeping foot with a ciliated gliding sole (see Fig.
The larval apical organs of chitons and entoprocts
include a centrally localized group of eight flask-shaped cells and additional peripheral cells that send fibers into a central neuropil (Voronezhskaya et al.
Some observations on the sex differentiation of an entoproct
, Barentsia discreta (Busk).
Decapod crustaceans, entoprocts
, polychaetes and gastropods all have high proportions of native species (over 70%, see Table 4).
This idea might also apply to other spiralian taxa such as molluscs and entoprocts
1972) and Strathmann (1978)--bivalves, annelids, echiurids, sipunculids, and entoprocts
This arrangement is fundamentally different from that of other suspension-feeding organisms such as entoprocts
(in which both the mouth and anus are surrounded by tentacles) or some polychaetes (e.