tepejilote than for the scarce entomophilous
climbing palm C.
baldensis are strongly analogous to those seen in the entomophilous
Rhynchospora Vahl sect.
Ericaceae in temperate and subtropical latitudes are usually entomophilous, with bees seeking nectar, collecting pollen, or both.
Buzz pollination is usually associated with entomophilous pollination syndromes and has been reported for temperate Ericaceae, including Vaccinium (Knudsen & Olesen, 1993).
and pollination modes (trochilophilous, chiropterophilous, entomophilous
, autogamous, unspecific), is particularly well suited for studying the relationship of such species attributes to range size.
2000b), autogamy perhaps provides an alternative to the presumed entomophilous
pollination system of colonizers.
Second, in entomophilous
species, elaioplasts produce large amounts of lipids in their stroma, which are released into the cytoplasm through the plastid envelopes prior to tapetal plasma membrane disruption (Heslop-Harrison, 1968; Dickinson & Lewis, 1973; Pacini & Juniper, 1979b; Reznickova & Willemse, 1980, 1981; Reznickova & Dickinson, 1982; Keijzer & Willemse, 1988b; Murgia et al.
Relationships of taxa and taxonomic distribution of simple stigmas suggested by the present analysis, supplemented with data on floral emergence, insect visitation, and pollen sculpturing, suggest that the earliest grasses were at least partially entomophilous
Here, the entomophilous
lowland species have large colorful flowers with nectar guides, spreading corolla lobes, short tubes filled with trichomes, and divergent stamen filaments.
Flowers actinomorphic or very rarely zygomorphic (Dorothea); bisexual or rarely unisexual; nearly always epigynous; often heterostylic (Cinchona): pollination zoophilous (mainly entomophilous
, especially Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera) or rarely anemophilous (Theligonum).
Approximately 75% of this genus is entomophilous
(insect pollinated), the remainder being ornithophilous (bird pollinated).