The dry babassu endocarp
and mesocarp extracted samples (the content with the best extractives according to the DOE results) were subjected to two-stage acid hydrolysis using 72% sulfuric acid (3 mL) in water bath at 30[degrees]C, the samples were stirred every 10 minutes in the first step.
These data collection coincided with the beginning of experiments on endocarp
removal (see below).
ulmacea, aspect that could make the fruit lighter, aiding the dispersion, given the facilitated opening by the spongy tissue in the septum; and fibrous endocarp
with many elongated cells layers organized in variable plans in S.
The tissue structure of endocarps
showed distinctive differences in the patterning of inner and outer endocarp
surfaces, and cross-sections of ground tissue in all 17 taxa examined (to be reported more fully in Lentfer et al.
Since dry matter was highest in the exocarp and mesocarp of the nuts from the tolerant clones and proanthocyanidines were highest in the endocarp
, the nutborer larvae have to overcome first a physical barrier followed by a chemical barrier to feed on macadamia nuts.
Poor germination of Ziziphus seeds seems causes by dormancy, hard woody endocarp
and even seed coat that covering around the seeds.
americanus are drupes containing an indurate endocarp
(Green 1958), and vascular strands within the pericarp are located in the outer portions of the endocarp
adjacent to the mesocarp (Figures 6 and 7), a location identical to that of Olea europaea L.
In the NM treatment, many of the seeds in the faeces disappeared within 1-4 days, or only the endocarp
Each fruit consists of a hard kernel, seed, inside a shell, endocarp
, which is surrounded by a fleshy mesocarp.
The tree is slender, erect up to 30 meters tall with a smooth trunk and a crown of large pinnate leaves 1-2 cm long, orange coloured when ripe, with hard fibrous endocarp
and a single seed, commonly called a nut.
Morphological descriptions of the tree, leaf, fruit and endocarp
for these cultivar clones have been published (Tous et al.
This result was similar to that reported in literature for in natura coconut shell endocarp
as expected, since coir dust is a residue from coconut shell process .
Fruit subglobose, obovoid to turbinate, laterally flattened, 2,5-3,5 cm x 1,7-2,6 cm wide, 3,1-6,2 cm long including a 2-4 mm long beak, with a pedicel (base of the rachilla) to 3 cm long; exocarp yellow to brown, covered with black bristles 1-3 mm long; mesocarp yellow, fleshy, fibrous, 2-5 mm thick; endocarp
2,1-4 cm long, asymmetrical, ovoid to turbinate and acute basally.
(originated from adaxial meristem) is similar to the middle mesocarp.
was removed from Prunus dulcis & ground to small pieces.