Forster, Paul I 1996 'Lepidozamia hopei (Zamiaceae), the world's tallest cycad', Encephalartos 48:12-15.
Macrozamia macdonnellii', Encephalartos 59:4-7, 17-18.
A picture of a longitudinal section of the seed of Encephalartos villosus (before germination) is included to clear up some confusion about the seed and seedling terminology.
The soaked seeds of Encephalartos altensteinii and E.
The huge plant, called Encephalartos
altensteinii - but you probably knew that - was discovered by Kew's first planter Francis Masson from South Africa in the early 1770s.
only in Encephalartos, Macrozamia, and Lepidozamia among extant cycad
Bowenia, Encephalartos, Macrozamia, and Lepidozamia (Worsdell, 1901;
The phylogeny of Encephalartos species has never been researched.
of diversity for Encephalartos, is particularly problematic as far as
genera Encephalartos, Lepidozamia, and Macrozamia also constitute a
related to the African genus Encephalartos than to the Australian genus
especially in the genera Cycas, Encephalartos
, Macrozamia, and Zamia,
organogenesis in Encephalartos
dyerianus and Encephalartos
The provisional classification presented is based on a cladistic analysis; and the present authors think that, although certain aspects could be modified by the addition of new information, others - such as the recognition of Cycadaceae with Cycas, Stangeriaceae with Stangeria and Bowenia, and the Zamiaceae with two major clades (the Encephalartoideae, containing Dioon, Encephalartos, Lepidozamia, and Macrozamia; and the Zamiodeae, containing Ceratozamia, Chigua, Microcycas, and Zamia) - would remain unchanged.
The presence of medullary bundles is a character observed in extant cycads in Encephalartos, Lepidozamia, and Macrozamia, though not all species of these genera have been examined.