The world-record high-energy cosmic-ray particle carried 3.2 [+ or -] 0.9 x [10.sup.20] electron volts
. If it was a proton, it was moving so close to the speed of light that after traveling 1 light-year, it would be only 46 nanometers behind a photon that left at the same time!
Most cosmic rays have energies of millions or billions of electron volts
, but some are much more energetic.
By 1954, a particle accelerator capable of accelerating protons to an energy of 5 to 6 billion electron volts
(BeV) had been built at the University of California.
The low energy X-rays, as previously suggested, was a result of the collision between hot stellar winds going up to 40 million degrees Celsius, but the "hard" X-rays had energies more than 30,000 electron volts
, which is much more than what could be explained by the collision of winds.
[and] masses of at least five billion electron volts
Both packed a serious punch: 73 and 95 billion electron volts
, the highest-energy photons ever recorded from a GRB.
For comparison, the energy of visible light is between 2 and 3 electron volts
This year, the LHC's protons collided with 13 trillion electron volts
of energy; the machine was running at 8 trillion electron volts
when it exposed overwhelming evidence for the Higgs boson in 2012 (SN: 7/28/12, p.
The particle itself weighs approximately 126 billion electron volts
(a proton weighs 1 billion electron volts
), and that mass would be what's needed to make the universe unstable, notes LiveScience.
The LHC results put the Higgs-like particle at about 125 billion electron volts
, 133 times more massive than a proton.
At the flare's peak, the LAT detected gamma rays with two billion times the energy of visible light, or about four billion electron volts
(GeV), easily setting a record for the highest-energy light ever detected during or immediately after a solar flare.
UPDATE: The galaxy is teeming with cosmic rays--and we now know a lot more about these subatomic particles that tear through space with tremendous energy, up to roughly 100 billion billion electron volts
. The lowest-energy cosmic rays come from the sun.
While the energy of visible light falls between about 2 and 3 electron volts
, the LAT detects gamma rays with energies ranging from 20 million to more than 300 billion electron volts
In Fermi's all-sky maps of very-high-energy gamma radiation (1 billion to 100 billion electron volts
per photon), the bubbles at first went unrecognized.
Based on its mass (3,872 million electron volts
) and the particles it decayed into, X(3872) appeared to consist of a charm quark, an anticharm and at least two other quarks.