Doctors Toshiaki and Yuko Kawakami have found that activity levels of Natural Killer (NK) cells, which are disease fighting cells of the immune system, play a pivotal role in the development of eczema vaccinatum
in the mice.
The Food and Drug Administration approved VIGIV with the condition that postmarketing studies be conducted, including assessing clinical benefits, such as increased survival in patients with progressive vaccinia and eczema vaccinatum
It is effective for treating eczema vaccinatum
and certain cases of progressive vaccinia.
inadvertent inoculation of the eyes or mouth) as well as eczema vaccinatum
, progressive or severe generalized vaccinia infections, and other skin conditions.
On the positive side of the smallpox program, there have been no cases of eczema vaccinatum
, which was an early concern, and no cases of progressive vaccinia.
Smallpox vaccine administration can trigger a wide range of dermatologic reactions, from severe conditions such as eczema vaccinatum
and progressive vaccinia, to milder reactions such as generalized vaccinia and erythema multiforme.
Other complications include autoinoculation, in which traces of the vaccine can be transmitted by a health worker's hands to the eyes, for example; progressive vaccinia (also called vaccinia gangrenosa); and eczema vaccinatum
, a widespread skin reaction in patients with atopic dermatitis.
was associated with case-fatality rates of up to 10% overall and 30% to 40% in children <2 years of age (22).
Rose continued, "One year ago we were asked by the CDC to provide a formulation of ST-246 for treatment of a moribund child with eczema vaccinatum
, an illness that mimics clinical smallpox.
and progressive vaccinia) after infections with nonhighly attenuated variants of vaccinia virus (6), including Raboral V-RG (7).
Some other well-documented complications of smallpox vaccination that date back to the era of routine smallpox vaccination include generalized vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum
, postvaccinial encephalitis, inadvertent inoculation, fetal vaccinia, and death.
Thousands of other adverse events, such as eczema vaccinatum
, generalized rashes, and accidental implantation occurred in the past and would likely be much more common today given the larger number of people living with altered immune systems, Dr.
Representatives from USAMRIID and CDC Also Expected to Present Animal Study Data and Chicago Eczema Vaccinatum
Case Study Information
On March 7, 2007, the Chicago Department of Public Health and the University of Chicago Pediatric Infectious Disease Service and Infection Control Program notified CDC of a child with presumed eczema vaccinatum
(EV), a life-threatening complication of vaccinia virus infection (1).