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Furthermore, if these extreme heating events occur with greater frequency as a result of projected global warming (IPCC 2001), we anticipate that the number of ectothermic species that follow the converse of Bergmann's rule will increase over time.
However, the studies they reviewed primarily used ectothermic vertebrates.
In summary, contrary to endotherms where the fitness consequences of body size and shape on heat loss are believed to have resulted in geographic patterns known as Bergmann's and Allen's rules, many ectothermic organisms display a pattern of body-size variation referred to as the converse of Bergmann's Rule (Masaki 1978) that is thought to have evolved in response to geographic patterns in season length.
Physiological basis for high C02 tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?
lepidus is directly cognizant of rain falling outside, even in temperatures not usually associated with active movement in ectothermic snakes.
There are many examples of unintended introductions of fungal pathogens, particularly of those affecting plants and ectothermic animals with tissue temperatures permissive to fungal infection (27-29).
hentzi are lower than those found in species of spiders, crabs and terrestrial ectothermic vertebrates that are more specialized for running.
In developing this extension I have followed the approach to habitat selection by ectothermic animals in thermally heterogeneous environments outlined by Huey (1991), bearing in mind the need for an integrated treatment of food and temperature resources when dealing with habitat choice by foraging ectotherms that is so well argued by Magnuson et al.
elegans reared at lower temperatures results from increased somatic cell size, not from a change in cell number or the size of the extracellular matrix; (2) altered cell size might underlie most cases of increased body of ectothermic animals (but not plants) reared at lower temperatures; (3) latitudinal and altitudinal clines in body size (Bergmann 1847) are therefore caused entirely by phenotypic plasticity without any genetic differentiation among populations; and (4) body-size clines thus do not reflect natural selection, but are a nonadaptive byproduct of changes in cell size.
Sceloporus jarrovii is ectothermic and has a simple alimentary tract when compared to birds or mammals.
Cold-blooded, a term usually taken to be synonymous with the word ectothermic, describes creatures that do not create their own body heat; instead, they rely on the sun to warm their insides.
Physiological basis for high CO, tolerance in marine ectothermic animals: pre-adaptation through lifestyle and ontogeny?
Although neutralizing antibody circulation is only one part of immune function, previous studies have suggested that multiple aspects of the ectothermic immune system may be affected by body temperature, which is directly affected by environmental temperature (29-31).
Fecundity m(x) generally increases with size in plants and ectothermic animals (references in Roff 1992:126), and growth rate is of major importance to life history evolution in these organisms, most of which grow throughout their lives (Hutchings 1993).
Still at issue are what factor or factors are responsible for the increased size of ectothermic animals reared at lower temperatures.
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