cordis (EC), a congenital extrusion of heart through a defect on the anterior chest wall, currently has no known aetiology and most cases are sporadic .
Avram, "Lingual thyroid ectopia
: diagnostic SPECT/CT imaging and radioactive iodine treatment," Thyroid, vol.
The most common presentation of ectopia
cordis is for the heart to be contained within the pericardium under the muscles in the ventral cervical region with a double apex facing craniodorsally.
About 80% of patients have ectopia
lentis, which is usually bilateral, symmetrical and upward.
Pentalogy of Cantrell associated with thoracoabdominal ectopia
Keywords: Pentalogy of Cantrell, Ectopia
cordis, midline developmental anomalies
(28) Without treatment, 82% of patients will have developed ectopia
lentis by 10 years of age.
Eye involvement in the syndrome occurs in two forms; namely major and minor, where ectopia
lentis is in the major category.
There was associated tonsillar ectopia
due to the small cranium.
 Crossed testicular ectopia
is an extremely rare form of testicular ectopia
but well recognized entity in which both gonads migrate towards the same hemiscrotum.
Mechanisms for vision impairment in ectopia
lentis include lenticular myopia, astigmatism, and anisometropia.