Baccolini (115) points to dystopian literature's intricate relationship to history.
According to Baccolini dystopian literature shows that the future does not necessarily lead to progress: that the present can develop negatively.
In dystopian literature there is a preoccupation with the past, with a focus on the control of history (Baccolini 115).
In dystopian literature the future therefore cannot be disconnected from the past, and the past is often used to give insight into the dystopian future that is portrayed.
In this paper I explore the role of references to South African history in the construction of the future in a selection of the Afrikaans dystopian novels published after 1999.
Haasbroek's dystopian satire Oemkontoe van die nasie (hereafter referred to as Oemkontoe), published in 2001 and set in 2005, South Africa's struggle history is already evoked in the title of the novel: "Oemkontoe" refers to Umkhonto weSizwe, translated as "spear of the nation", which was the military wing of the ANC during the struggle against apartheid.
As mentioned, parties on both the Left and Right employ dystopian imagery.
If we combine the type of "free" speech that is cut loose from epistemological constraints with a discursive landscape in which the overstatement is the new rhetorical baseline, our social, political, economic, and educational conversations will necessarily result in dystopian hyperbole.
The first notable twentieth-century dystopian novel was Jack London's The Iron Heel.
After the publication of the Iron Heel, however, schooling emerged as a common theme in many dystopian novels.
The critical position, espoused by scholars like Spring and Karier, is colored by dystopian dread, with schools viewed as hegemonic institutions that manipulate the disenfranchised in order to further the interests of the dominant class.
Utopian and dystopian representations, whether fictional, scholarly, or residing in the blogosphere, are always political.