Heteroxenia ghardaqensis are rich in sesquiterpenoids, ceramides, diterpenes
, sterols and acylglycerols (Elshamy et al., 2015; Abdel-Razik et al., 2016) and possess many pharmacological activities such as antitumor nature, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antipyretic, hypoglycemic properties, protective effect against cadmium toxicity and antioxidant (Mohamed et al., 2012).
The analysis in positive and negative ionization modes revealed the presence of 26 diterpenes
skeletons as major components, of which 17 were characterized (Table 1).
In this way, the presence of diterpene
carboxylic acids can be identified.
Significant chemical constituents of horehound are diterpenes
marrubiin and marrubenol, with confirmed vasodilatory effects.
The species belonging to the Asteraceae family are characterized by their abundant biological activity , which results from their chemical composition, including secondary metabolites such as terpenes, diterpenes
, flavonoids, and coumarins .
(2012) reported the presence of fatty acids and their esters, aromatic acids, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes
, triterpenes, and flavonoids among others, on propolis collected from Antioquia.
These peaks did not absorb in the UV-monitored range, and their molecular formulae suggest diterpene
(peaks 14 and 15) and triterpene (peaks 16, 17, and 18) derivatives.
As can be seen in Table 2, genkwanin (3), the three diterpene
glycosides (17-19), and 2,4-dihydroxy 6-methoxyacetophenone 4-O-[beta]D-glucopyranoside (20) demonstrated no AR inhibition; all had [IC.sub.50] values > 200 [micro]M.
This abietane-type phenolic diterpene
, accounts for many pharmacological activities of R.
After decades of extensive research of pseudopterosins, these tricyclic diterpene
glycosides are thought to provide superior anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, compared with standard anti-inflammatory treatments, without inducing adverse side effects; they also offer marked antimicrobial and wound-healing effects.
The coffee diterpene
kahweol induces heme oxygenase-1 via the PI3K and p38/Nrf2 pathway to protect human dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxydopamine-derived oxidative stress.
Caption: Kahweol, a diterpene
in coffee, inhibits angiogenesis, or blood vessel growth.
The leaves are the useable part which contain natural complex mixture of eight sweet diterpene
FB3 is a proprietary, international patent-pending blend of Coleus forskohlii, Salacia reticulata and Sesamum indicum--standardized, respectively, for diterpene
forskolin, kotanol and salacinol, and sesamin.