One of the more frequently reported complications in children is PICC dislodgment (Frey, 1999).
Study Group #1 - PICC dislodgment. Multiple publications from 1985 to 1997 (see Table 1) were reviewed for evidence of PICC dislodgment in pediatric patients.
While some complications, such as occlusion and catheter breakage, may be rectified and therapy resumed with little interruption, dislodgment results in disruption of therapy.
The study group (Stat Lock) demonstrated an increased catheter dwell time, an overall reduction in IV complications and unscheduled nursing visits, and fewer episodes of catheter migration, dislodgment, and phlebitis.
In comparing the reports in Table 1, dislodgment rate was reportedly lower with certain methods of PICC securement.
Preliminary results demonstrate a statistically significant reduction of PICC dislodgment and other complications in the study group as compared to the control group.
Looking at rates of dislodgment, a major strength in Study Group # 1 is the number of publications available representing a variety of age groups, PICC insertion and securement methods, and agency outcomes.
Unfortunately, given the multitude of processes that potentially affect the force imposed on a wave-swept organism (the shoaling, refraction, diffraction, and reflection of waves, and the wake effects of small-scale topography), no single "best" choice of scale is apparent for the processes affecting dislodgment, and there is at present no substitute for direct observation in the definition of the scale of a site.
The transducer was calibrated in the field using accurately known weights, and the force records were subsequently transcribed to chart recordings in the laboratory where the dislodgment force was measured from the trace.
For each species, the relationship between dislodgment force and size (measured here as planform area) was modeled using the allometric equation described previously (Eq.
Each measured dislodgment force [f.sub.b] was normalized to the corresponding force predicted from the allometric model, [f.sub.p]:
This curve is estimated from the rank order of values of [f.sub.n], and the probability that an individual has a normalized dislodgment force [less than or equal to] [f.sub.n,i] is (Gumbel 1958)
Given that the dislodgment force is the maximal force each individual can sustain, the cumulative probability distribution estimated using Eq.
Regression coefficients for the allometric model of dislodgment force as a function of area are given in Table 8.