* performance of a thorough analysis of correlation between the size of pruned branch and length of wood discolouration. Such correlation was aiming at establishing the threshold level of branch size for minimizing the presence of wood discolouration.
The assessment of pruning wounds and their effects on wood quality was carried out visually followed by the measurement of discolouration zones inside the trunk.
The results of such measurement show a great variability of wood discolouration depending on the size of branch removed by pruning as follows:
In case of small wounds (maximum 2 cm Ha) fully closed, located on vigorously growing trees (diameter increment: 0.80.9 cm/yr) regardless their position (height) along the tree trunk, the size of discolouration zone is very small (no more than 1 to 2 cm downwards from the pruning cut).
10) of 2.7 and 2.6 cm respectively, the length of discolouration zones was 3 cm (photo 3).
The effect of artificial pruning on wood discolouration was tremendous in case of large wounds (Ha over 4 cm).
If branches are thicker than 3 cm, the size of wood discolouration can become very important.
In addition, two very important issues regarding the wood discolouration should be emphasized in the case of northern red oak trees pruned back in 2007 and 2009:
No wood discolouration has been detected above the pruning cut; the only area showing this defect was located exclusively under the pruning cut, as a prolongation of various lengths of the (outer) part of branch removed by pruning towards the pith.
These results, in terms of both presence+size of wood discolouration as well as health (lack of defects) of wood formed after pruning, are fully consistent with the ones by Soutrenon (1991a, 1991b, 1993).
1) An exfoliation step to diminish the appearance of discolourations
2) An essence to improve the appearance of discolourations
The three formulas are designed to improve the appearance of discolourations and speed their reduction through exfoliation.
For women predisposed to skin discolouration it doesn't take much to trigger brown spots and patchy skin.
With skin discolouration being the number one concern for most women in Asia, especially during the spring and summer, Clinique identified and consulted with key dermatologists from Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China to gain insight on the most effective and comprehensive treatments.