In 1964, Marshal McLuhan wrote about Russia that it "is still in the main an oral, tribal world that is undergoing detribalization
and just now discovering individualism as a novelty." (McLuhan, 2001, p.
Yet when we take these linguistic divisions in the historical, cultural, and geographic contexts of the entire Hemisphere, we must recognize that we are following the tracks of European and Creole nationalist imperialisms, ignoring the massive destruction of Amerindian languages and their related cultures as well as the suppression of non-European languages occasioned by slavery's systematic detribalization
and its customary ban on literacy and other formal education for slaves.
This education involved (1) a leadership that followed colonial directives; (2) clerical and artisanal training; (3) reconciliation of Muslim and British values; (4) denationalization/ detribalization
; (5) resistance to the harmonization of the educational systems of the southern and northern protectorates; (6) cultural transfer; (7) creating and extending northern Muslim autocratic rule over outsiders (southerners); and (8) making sure that African Christians, particularly the southerners among them, and their way of life never gained a toehold in the North.
Capture's perceived individualism and "detribalization
This had the usual result of integrating the tribals who have lost their power base either to modern ethnic nationalism, or on the other end of the spectrum, detribalization
and absorption into ideology-based organizations; since Islamism dominated, recruitment to these organizations occurred to a grater rate, while ethno-nationalism sentiments of the Baluchis in Sistan and the Kurds were suppressed.
(42) Secondly, as 'detribalization
' continued, their tribal grounds and ceremonial areas would be less important to them.
As OIA officials drew lines in the sand in the late nineteenth century, surveying and then selling off reservation lands once protected by treaties, they also surveyed expressive culture, determining which forms were satisfactory for the making of a model American citizenship, and which challenged the OIA agenda of detribalization
. Not unexpectedly, most dances deemed "Indian" by the OIA were blacklisted in orders passed between 1882 and 1923.
Persistent concern about the "detribalization
" of Africans, the destruction of their "traditional" embeddedness in the controls and mores of their "tribal" social structures deemed the collateral damage of coming to town, appears to have structured the image of the city negatively until the late 1940s.
Cultivators of individuality and conformity; specialized political agents; definers of cultural authority; shapers of community; arbiters of standards; molders of affiliative loyalties; hegemonic overlords and instruments of detribalization
; intergenerational go--betweens; and for lower class families, teachers were alternative cultural authorities who presided over alternative symbolic universes (Finkelstein 1989, 21--25).
In the end, then, the little schoolhouses that dotted the Pine Ridge Reservation presented what assimilationist educators might have called an object lesson: Not the lesson in detribalization
and assimilation these architects of the day school system so earnestly desired, but rather a lesson in how native peoples have struggled to balance cultural change with cultural continuity in order to persist in the face of overwhelming odds, unconscionable violence, and heartrending loss.
Using her accounts and those of patrol officers, sometimes day-by-day, they describe the events that led up to the removal, the way of life of the Martu, patrols of the Western area, their experiences in civilization and living at missions, and detribalization
. Davenport and Johnson work on Kanyirninpa Jukurrpa, a Martu history and archive project in Australia.
It concludes with an analysis of the changing nature of the electorate: the 'detribalization
' of Australian politics.
Blair Stonechild, a Muscowpetung First Nations Plains Cree Professor of Indian Studies at the First Nations University of Canada, writes about "Recovering the Heritage of Treaty Number Four." After a historical overview of treaty promises and the First Nations' assumption that "they would maintain their traditions and sacred beliefs" (3), he outlines the "detribalization
policy'(4) in the form of residential schools and the banning of ceremonies which effected an erosion of Aboriginal cultures later reinforced by museum and private collections of Aboriginal cultural heritage objects.
Some Catholic officials accused British lawmakers of wanting to push the Africans back to illiteracy and paganism under the guise of preventing detribalization
. (16) Bishop Hinsley, the apostolic delegate to British Africa, in an interview with the
This brings up the issue of Tom's "detribalization
." The term is meant to confuse the anthropological study of Africa with that of England.