According to the direction of metal flow, the deforming force of cold roll-beating is divided into [CFN.sub.X], [CFN.sub.Y] and [CFN.sub.Z].
Slab method is a commonly used approximate resolving method for calculating the deforming force in plastic processing.
While solving the deforming force, certain simplifications are made, it is assumed that the work-piece is fixed without moving and roll-beating of the roller on the work only occurs once.
Meanwhile, the stress status of a unit in the deforming zone are following.
Based on the physical model above, assumptions are made while solving the deforming forces as following.
(1) The unit in the deforming zone is of three dimensional stress state, the deforming is mainly radial compressing and axial tensile, thus the tangential deforming is neglected and the deforming process can be considered as plane stress state.
(2) The contacting shape between the roller and work blank is considered as ideal and the material is homogeneous and isotropic, while instantaneous deforming occurs in the contacting zone with the roller, no deforming occurs in other zones.
(4) The volume of work-piece remains unchanged before and after deforming.
FSI capabilities are useful in the biomedical industry to model phenomena such as deforming
arterial walls and tissue grafts.
Instead of deforming
permanently, the compressed material somehow retains a "memory" of its original crystal structure.
These tests involve deforming
the sample to a predetermined strain, then measuring the stress required to maintain that strain over time.
This involves measuring ,the atmospheric distortion of light coming from a bright, easy-to-measure reference star near the celestial object of interest, then electrically deforming
a flexible telescope mirror to optically compensate for the distortion.
Sacks told SCIENCE NEWS that by the time a deforming
ripple, or strain pulse, generated beneath dry land reaches a submerged subduction zone, the pulse has flattened into a horizontal motion that tends to pull the edge of the continental plate slightly away from the oceanic plate.
The characteristic dimension is the distance away from an explosion at which seismic waves can propagate through rocks without permanently deforming them.
The characteristic dimension of a decoupled explosion, on the other hand, is typically much shorter; a cavity designed to decouple a 1 KT explosion would have walls that move elastically, without deforming, at only 25 meters from the explosion.