can optimize mixed systems because the production of fodder and seeds provides extra pay to the farmer as well as an opportunity to reuse seeds in the next harvest.
In order to simulate the effect of insects, field studies were conducted using artificial removal of leaves, as well as laboratory studies using the pest insects themselves for the defoliation
. Authors like Diogo et al.
The intervals observed between defoliations
indicate that lambs grazed 84.0, 66.7 and 49.7% of the total area daily, when subjected to allowances of 6, 9 and 12%, respectively.
Association of restriction fragment length polymorphism marker data with CEW defoliation
and weight gain data from [F.sub.2]-derived lines of a Cobb x PI 229358 population allowed Rector et al.
In the present study, the strength of DIR was determined primarily by defoliation
in the previous year and cumulative defoliations
only slightly increased its effect.
Initially, Cacapon State Park was to serve as a example of what forests (including bird populations and habitat) would be like in the absence of defoliation
due to spray treatment.
intensity was obtained by the equation:
The presence of a late season fruiting gap in cotton may require growers to deviate from usual defoliation
For its part, the effect of plant height in increasing the number of defoliations
during the lifespan of the leaf blade (Figure 4A) determined the increase (p < 0.01) in the percentage of leaf blades grazed per tiller of signal grass (Figure 4B).
Moreover, preliminary ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between tall and short saplings for the birch growth or chemistry variables of this paper, nor any interaction of growth rate classification with fertilization-shade treatments or defoliation
. We, therefore, omit the growth rate classification from our analyses.
Our objective was to determine the effect of defoliation
frequency and cutting heights of kura clover-grass mixtures on forage yield and species composition.
In order to evaluate the defoliation
frequency factor, the following treatments were used: D0 = no defoliation
Active tree responses to defoliation
have been proposed as important factors regulating insect herbivore population dynamics (Rhoades 1985, Neuvonen et al.
Properly timing defoliation
involves balancing the value of potential yield increases and losses with possible alterations in fiber quality and possible discounts.
On-farm application requires continuous estimates of: (i) HM to determine land area for each allocation period, (ii) relative growth rates for the defoliation
intensity used to determine subsequent reallocation intervals, and (iii) the nutritive value of the HM to assess potential daily animal responses.