Schade, "The effectiveness and risks of programming an insulin pump to counteract the dawn phenomenon in type 1 diabetes," Endocrine Practice, vol.
Drash, "The dawn phenomenon: comparison between normal and insulindependent diabetic adolescents," Pediatric Research, vol.
The mechanism of dawn phenomenon still remains unclear.
Therefore, it is interesting to find an interaction between dawn phenomenon, sleep quality, and circadian clock gene expression in subjects with diabetes.
The magnitude of dawn phenomenon ([DELTA]Dawn) was quantified by its increment from nocturnal nadir to prebreakfast glucose level, and the threshold of [DELTA]Dawn was determined to be 20mg/dL (1.11 mmol/L) according to Monnier et al.
 published a simple method for assessing and quantifying the presence of the dawn phenomenon using SMBG.
The magnitude of dawn phenomenon ([DELTA]Dawn) was quantified by its absolute change from the nocturnal nadir to prebreakfast glucose level, and the dawn phenomenon threshold was set at 20 mg/dL (1.11 mmol/L) according to Monnier et al.
Analysis of SMBG and Dawn Phenomenon. All patients in this study underwent 3-day CGMS and SMBG.
* Dawn phenomenon
with fasting blood sugars frequently exceeding 200 mg/dL.