In this category of dacryoadenitis
, three patients presented with necrobiotic granulomatous inflammation for which they underwent excision biopsy and one was diagnosed as sarcoid and the other two were diagnosed with non-specific adenitis.
melitensis infection after two dacryoadenitis
cases reported by Bekir et al.
Bijlsma et al, (18) indicated a possible link between ocular adnexal lymphomas and IgG4related sclerosing dacryoadenitis
. However, the causal relationship between lymphomas and IgG4RD remains unclear.
Wei, "Mesenchymal stem cells for treating autoimmune dacryoadenitis
," Stem Cell Research & Therapy, vol.
The initial differential diagnosis was infectious versus inflammatory: orbital cellulitis versus dacryoadenitis
(infectious or noninfectious) versus orbital pseudotumor versus IgG4-related disease.
Ohta et al., "Lesional [CD4.sup.+] [IFN-y.sup.+] cytotoxic T lymphocytes in IgG4-related dacryoadenitis
and sialoadenitis," Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, vol.
Although the most important risk factor for the development of orbital cellulitis is paranasal sinusitis, any infection including conjunctivitis, dacryoadenitis
, and hordeolum or trauma in the eye and adjacent tissues may lead to preseptal cellulitis.
Other common presentations include Riedel's thyroiditis, autoimmune pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, sialadenitis, dacryoadenitis
, periaortitis, an eosinophilic rash, and pseudotumor of the lung, lymph nodes, or orbits.
The typical ophthalmic manifestation is lacrimal gland enlargement (dacryoadenitis
Ohta et al., "Lesional CD4+ IFNy+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes in IgG4-related dacryoadenitis
and sialoadenitis," Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 2016.
[sup] Mulay and Aggarwal reported the first documented case of bilateral IgG4-related dacryoadenitis
evolving into a MALT lymphoma on one side.
Chronic sclerosing dacryoadenitis
: part of the spectrum of IgG4-related Sclerosing disease?
leprae also causes dacryoadenitis
and supra-cilliary or cilliary madarosis while facial nerve involvement will manifest in lagophthalmos and eyelid deformity (ectropion, entropion, or trichiasis).
The reported ocular complications resulting from the influenza virus include influenza retinopathy, macular edema, optic neuritis, small intraretinal hemorrhages, color vision deficiency, uveitis, keratitis, ulcerative keratopathy, dacryoadenitis
, and sclerotic vasculopathy (3-6).
On CT, dacryoadenitis
tends to show the gland to be enlarged in an oblong configuration.