Adenosine accumulation is partially associated with hypoxia and its release in the extracellular environment and can impair NK cell cytolytic
activities by decreasing TNF-[alpha] secretion (following IL-2 stimulation), decreasing cytotoxic granule exocytosis, and attenuating perforin and Fas ligand-mediated cytotoxic activity as far as cytokine release.
In the latter, the relatively few cytolytic
systems that have been characterized are less complex than the vertebrate complement system, with some the province of a single protein that both recognizes and binds to the foreign cell and mediates its cytolytic
destruction [5, 10].
Initial studies using in vitro systems demonstrated that stimulation of human peripheral NK cells with LPS treated mature DC augmented the cytolytic
activity of NK cells.
A recent study shows that HSP70 can induce cytolytic
activity of T-helper cells and that the release of granzyme B is target-independent .
Cytokine dysregulation could be the major cause of tissue damage in humans, especially in organs in which productive infection does not take place and cell damage cannot be accounted for by cytolytic
The MAGE genes were initially identified because they encode tumor antigens that can be recognized by cytolytic
T lymphocytes derived from blood lymphocytes of cancer patients (1).
destruction of foreign cells by proteins of the plasma is an important immune defense strategy of higher animals.
Kretschmer et al., "Identification of novel cytolytic
peptides as key virulence determinants for community-associated MRSA," Nature Medicine, vol.
Incubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with TKD peptide plus a low dose of IL-2 initiates the cytolytic
and migratory capacity of NK cells toward Hsp70-membrane-positive tumor cells in vitro and in a xenograft tumor mouse model .
The most effective strategy to deal with pathogenic invasion is the immediate cytolytic
destruction of the pathogen.
Cells infected with this virus make physiologic concentrations of IL-12, a potent antitumor cytokine that has been shown to enhance the cytolytic
activity of natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes as well as the development of a TH-1-type immune response [5-11].
Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by [CD8.sup.+] cells: evidence for HLA class I-restricted triggering of cytolytic
and noncytolytic mechanisms.