Studies have shown that intracellular pH rises to a peak at mitosis, and decreases through cytokinesis
. This result, in conjunction with the electric dipole nature of microtubule subunits, is sufficient to explain and unify the basic events of cell division: (1) assembly of asters, (2) motion of asters to poles, (3) poleward motion of chromosomes during anaphase A, (4) anaphase B cell elongation, and (5) cytokinesis
Asexual reproduction is made possible by a combination of the processes of mitosis and cytokinesis
. Mitosis is the normal division of a cell nucleus that occurs as a plant grows.
Lobe formation always occurs in relation with cytokinesis
. During mitosis the lobe-forming region protrudes from the vegetal pole, and is constricted off maximally at the end of cytokinesis
, when the blastomeres are in late telophase or early interphase.
The autosomal recessive form is mainly due to mutation in Tyk2 (Tyrosine kinase 2) and DOCK8 (Dedicator of cytokinesis
was observed at times synchronous to the absorption of the PL.
In the viewpoint of cytokinesis
regulation, RRI is an inhibitor of RhoA signal pathway, which influences contractile ring formation and correctly completed cytokinesis
Conversely to the conventional idea of mitochondrial fission as a mechanism for assuring the equal distribution of mitochondria between the two daughter cells during cytokinesis
, a recent report showing that mitochondrial fission also drives the asymmetrical distribution of these organelles during cell division of stem-like cells adds an additional layer of complexity to the physiological roles already ascribed to the fragmentation of these organelles.
is achieved by an actin-myosin contractile ring that physically divides the cell into two daughter cells following separation of the sister chromatids during anaphase.
Biological process Cellular component 7% organization or biogenesis Cellular process 16% Localization 8% Biological regulation 8% Developmental 9% process Metabolic process 36% Other 16% Cellular process Cell communication 38% Cellular component movement 19% Cytokinesis
5% Cell Cycle 35% Chromosome 3% segregation Note: Table made from pie chart.
in microsporocyte meiosis is of simultaneous type, and the micropore tetrads are tetrahedral.
The cytokinesis-block procedure using cytochalasin B arrests division of cytoplasm or cytokinesis
without inhibiting nuclear division and enables cells that may express chromosome damage as MN to be accumulated and recognized as binucleated (BN) cells.
Micronuclei are generally scored in binucleated PBLs, which are cultured after sampling in the presence of the cytokinesis
blocker cytochalasin B, which allows separation of nuclei but not of cells.
Subsequently, the growth of CD117 [sup]+ CD34 [sup]+ cardiac TCs was continuously observed; Cytokinesis
did not occur immediately but occurred a short time after mitosis.
Scientists from Japan, Europe, and the US discuss the history of mitosis research and the model systems that have played a key role; how threads are produced through chromosome condensation; how sister chromatids attach to each other and to the spindle apparatus; how the spindle microtubules nucleate, elongate, pause, and shrink; how kinetochores and centrosomes serve as anchor and control points; the biochemical elements that coordinate the main regulatory stages of entry into mitosis, sister chromatid separation, and mitotic exit; how cells can mis-segregate and unbalance the genome; the cellular changes that occur during cytokinesis
; and the differences between mitosis and meiosis.
From this analysis, we determined that the strongest upregulated GO biological functions at 49.5% of our genetic subset (54 genes) were metabolic process (which consists of 3 genes in biosynthetic process, 9 genes in catabolic process, 1 gene in coenzyme metabolic process, 1 gene in generation of precursor metabolites and energy, 12 genes in nitrogen compound metabolic process, 14 genes in phosphate-containing compound metabolic process, 43 genes in primary metabolic process, and 2 genes in sulfur compound metabolic process) and at 35.2% (42 genes) were cellular process (which consists of 13 genes in cell communication, 11 genes in cell cycle, 1 gene in cell proliferation, 6 genes in cellular component movement, 3 genes in chromosome segregation, and 1 gene in cytokinesis
) (Figure 1(a)).