AMK, amikacin, amikacin; CAP, capreomycin; CIP, ciprofloxacin; CYS, cycloserine
; EMB, ethambutol; ETH, ethionamide; KAN, kanamycin; LVX, levofloxacin; MXF, moxifloxacin; OFX, ofloxacin; PAS, para-aminosalicylic acid; PTH, prothionamide; PZA, pyrazinamide; STR, streptomycin; TRZ, terizidone.
Capreomycin (2.5 [micro]g/mL), cycloserine
(70 [micro]g/mL), ethionamide (2.5 [micro]g/mL), kanamycin (2.5 [micro]g/mL) and ciprofloxacin (1 [micro]g/mL).
Insomnia and headache were attributed to cycloserine
. Insomnia and headache were treated symptomatically.
Some drugs used in management of MDR CNS TB penetrate the blood-brain barrier and these include quinolones, pyrazinamide, linezolid, cycloserine
, and ethionamide [5-7].
These include (1) aminoglycosides such as amikacin and kanamycin; (2) polypeptides such as capreomycin, viomycin, and enviomycin; (3) fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; (4) thioamides such as ethionamide and prothionamide; (5) cycloserine
; and (6) terizidone .
MDR, KMRC 00116-00250, pathogenic-resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, and pyrazinamide; XDR, KMRC 00203- 00197, pathogenic-resistant to isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, kanamycin, ofloxacin, rifabutin and amikacin, but susceptible to capreomycin, streptomycin, moxifloxacin, prothionamide, p-aminosalicylic, and cycloserine
. Table 2 Synergistic anti-tubercular activities of (-)- deoxypergularinine (DPG) with rifampin, INH, streptomycin, and ethambutol.
Among other cases spotlighted by the Times was that of cycloserine
, a treatment for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis that, after being acquired by Rodelis Therapeutics this summer, shot from $500 to $10,800 for thirty pills.
Rodelis Therapeutics acquired the rights to TB drug cycloserine
in August, and subsequently raised the price from $500 for 30 capsules to $10,800.
 * Terizidone is comprised of two molecules of cycloserine
and one molecule of terephtalaldehyde.
Many medicines, such as the anti-infection agent amikacin, and the antibiotic cycloserine
, which are included in the World Health Organisation's essential medicines list, are not included in the Indian NLEM, said Chinu Srinivasan, member of the All India Drug Action Network, which has been campaigning for drug price caps.
Many medicines such as the anti- infection agent amikacin and antibiotic cycloserine
, which are included in the World Health Organization's essential medicines list, are not included in NLEM.
So, the second-line ATD (kanamycin, ethionamide, levofloxacin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and cycloserine
) was started.
The enrichment (50 mL of selective broth with cycloserine
and cefoxitin) and subsequent isolation steps were performed as described [6, 14].
senegalense strains tested in vitro were found susceptible to cycloserine
, dapsone , or amikacin, doxycycline HCl (64 [micro]g/mL), oxytetracycline HCl (64 [micro]g/mL), and paromomycin sulphate (64 [micro]g/mL) .
The difference between the two regimens is that Kanamycin is replaced with Capreomycin; and Cycloserine
(Cs) and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) both are given for re-treatment cases (and either of them for new cases).