This study revealed that cumulating the aspirations of groups of individuals in society into a commonly agreed set of priorities is fraught with all sorts of dangers and are conflict-laden particularly in the absence of the moderating or mediating influence of institutions--which is often the case in many parts of Africa.
As such, the idea of cumulating the aspirations of living well and long among diverse individuals and along communal lines is essentially about guaranteeing one's own security.
3.2 Managing contradictions in the process of cumulating individual aspirations
Where such groups belong to the same principalities or political communities, the process of cumulating the aspirations of various groups upwards into a collective security vision would require residual capacity to mediate the differences in the aspirations of diverse groups.
The ideal of cumulating all of society's aspirations of living well and long into a coherent national vision and agenda for peace and security therefore calls into question two crucial capacities.
One example is Merrill (1981), who found that, in multimember elections, cumulating for one candidate is an undominated strategy.(11) Cox (1984) considered voting strategies under straight voting and showed that it may be optimal in double-member district elections for voters to "plump" their votes by voting for only one candidate (their favorite) rather than for two candidates.(12) Yet, neither researcher derives equilibrium outcomes and the full slate of equilibrium voting strategies for the different electoral systems, and neither explores the comparative statics of the equilibrium predictions.
In cumulative voting elections, voters have the additional option of cumulating their two votes on a single candidate and thus choose among more possible vote vectors.
In other words, voters may be indifferent between this strategy and cumulating, although they will never strictly prefer it.
If minority voters mix between cumulating and splitting their votes, then there is a lower probability of the minority candidate winning, since there is a positive probability that the minority candidate will be in a close race for second place.
Thus, cumulating votes is not the only predicted equilibrium strategy under cumulative voting, and vote splitting under cumulative voting may be an optimal strategy.