The IOR effect should only be observed at cued locations where participants do not expect the target to appear (from where they would have disengaged attention).
Thus, the target location was cued on half of the trials and uncued in the other half.
Contrasts showed that the low AQ participants were cued
to both faces, F(1, 10) = 20.7, p < .001, and to scrambled face parts, F(1, 10) = 10.3, p = .009.
Immediately following the first erroneous trial, a cued
object was paired with an uncued high-priority target (the nuclear weapon).
The assigned cue-Pd values (.5, .7, and .9) determined whether any given target would be cued
or not cued
(missed) by the cuing system.
Based on Posner and Cohen observation that IOR only occurred if a voluntary saccade was made to the cued
location but not if covert attention were allocated voluntarily to the location indicated by a central cue and then withdrawn (Posner & Cohen, 1984), Rafal and colleagues suggested that oculomotor activation was critical for generating the inhibitory effect, (Rafal, Calabresi, Brennan, and Sciolto, 1989).
When target objects were cued
, a reticle consisting of a square with four crosshairs was presented conformally over the target to signal its current lateral and vertical location.
For example, validly cued
targets in the form of a dot appearing to the right of a right pointing arrow, or a dot appearing to the right of a right looking eye-gaze cue, may be perceived as more coherent than invalidly cued
two) X 4 (target type) within-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted on the response times and accuracy data for the detection of tanks (cued
), soldiers (uncued), and nuclear devices.
These results suggest that the inconsistent findings about facilitation and inhibition elicited by a non-informative visual cue can be explained by considering that cue onset has a facilitatory effect (or no effect), whereas cue offset has an inhibitory effect on a target occurring in the cued
hemifield (see Gawryszewski et al., 2002b; Maruff et al., 1999 and Tassinari et al., 1994, for an analysis of the effect of cue and target duration).
When the density of global distractors is greater than 0%, the local area is cued
only with nonequivalent densities of local and global distractors (e.g., 80% global and 20% local distractors).
The stimulus place was cued
by an outline square of variable size, and the cue remained visible until the end of the trial.
Recently, Theeuwes and colleagues suggested that attentional control settings are more likely to operate through the rapid disengagement of attention from a cued
location (Theeuwes, Atchley & Kramer, 2000).
One of the peripheral boxes is flashed before the target appears thus summoning attention to this location, and responses to the target are usually faster when they appear at this cued
location than when they appear at the uncued location.