For high efficiency, systems must be engineered to apply the desired depth of freeze while optimizing the use of cryogen
The NIST energy dispersive microcalorimeter spectrometer for x-ray microanalysis used cryogens
and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to achieve the working temperatures (<100 inK) of the superconducting TES.
Air Products is said to bring to the alliance expertise in the use of cryogens
to enhance the cooling and granulating of various heat-sensitive or difficult-to-grind materia]s.
The two common cryosurgical methods are dependent on different cryogens
, which are the freezing agents.
The system is convenient and robust to use, with low running costs as no cryogens
are required, and are virtually maintenance-free.
Instead of relying on liquid cryogens
, such as liquid helium or nitrogen, these cryostats cool their payload in two stages, first using an acoustic refrigeration technique to get to within a few degrees of absolute zero, then employing magnetic refrigeration to reach the final temperature--all with no moving parts.
In total there will be 31 "Feeders" relaying the electrical power and cryogens
through the warm-cold barrier to the ITER magnets.
Blending functions include adding fat, water and/or spices to sausage mixes; working brine or marinade throughout whole-muscle tissue; extracting protein for coating or binding; and adding cryogens
to cool ground meat and poultry to proper forming temperature.
As expected, particle reduction by liquid cryogens
is very dependent on heat transfer and maintaining a very constant, low isotherm condition during the intense material reduction mechanisms encountered with cryogenic grinding.