Stan Howell and others at Michigan State University grew vines grafted onto 3309 rootstock but found such vines "were overly vigorous, with low productivity, excessive winter damage and crown gall
," according to NYSAES Bulletin 149.
Grapevine crown gall
, as one of the most important diseases of grapevine around the world, (2,3) is caused mainly by Rhizobium vitis (Ti) [= Agrobacterium vitis (Ti), A.
This failure is related to the transfer of resistance of the plasmid pAgK84 encoding the antibiotic bacteriocin K84 to the crown gall
pathogens [11, 12].
tumor disc bioassay: a possible aid in the detection of compounds with antitumor activity.
Bacteriocin prevents the crown gall
tumors from forming.
The technique holds promise for creating genetically engineered trees and vines that can stave off crown gall
, a costly disease that affects many perennial fruit and nut crops, including walnuts, apples and grapes.
The production of crown gall
tumors in plants caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens represents a unique disease involving the transfer of DNA from the bacterium to the nucleus of the plant.
Hard and "woody," burls differ from crown galls
, destructive growths found at the soil line or root level, which have been described as "punky" or rotting; crown gall
bacteria from the soil can enter a plant through wounds caused by such innocuously "suburban" implements as lawn mowers ...
The promoter and hormone-synthesis genes are transferred to target plants using tumor-forming crown gall
These include a fungal pathogen to control a rice weed; a soil microorganism to control plant crown gall
; insect parasites to control Mexican bean beetle on soybeans, Colorado potato beetles on eggplants, and filth flies around poultry and livestock operations; and viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens of other insect pests.
While EPA was making its decision, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced final approval of a proposal by Agracetus of Middleton, Wis., to field-test tobacco plants genetically engineered to resist tumors caused by crown gall
"Growers didn't realize they had crown gall
until those two winters brought it out.
Akira KAWAGUCHI "Development of Biological Control for Grapevine Crown Gall
He and several collaborators named three new bacterial species that affected plants, and published a paper showing for the first time that crown gall
of plants could be cured.
Genetically modified as defined by scientists and agriculturalists means a new gene was introduced outside of breeding--usually by using a bacterium that normally inserts its genes into plants (the causative agents of crown gall
disease or hairy root disease).