To perform craniometry
, a 200 mm pachymeter (Marberg[R]) was used.
(15.) For a more extensive discussion of craniometry
and late nineteenth century theories of biological determinism, see Gould, chapter two.
was thought to evaluate intelligence by measuring facial bones, phrenology maintained that the skull was made up of 27 sections whose shapes were linked to specific traits, and physiognomy contended that character could be assessed through a person's facial features.
, but also with more 'reputable' modern disciplines
Qureshi links the nineteenth-century interest in craniometry
and phrenology to such moments of inspection: these forms of knowledge allowed individuals to organize the differences they encountered into types, mostly through the assessment of a person's appearance.
Gould, Stephen (1993) "American Polygeny and Craniometry
Before Darwin." In the Racial Economy of Science: Toward a Democratic Future.
Conrad's subversion of such popularized "pseudo-science" is traced by John Griffith who writes, "Conrad, who had read Alfred Russell Wallace, similarly disregarded the idea of craniometry
[introduced by J.E Blumenbach]" (159).
has proven itself quite capable of producing scientific theories and data to justify racist practices, policies, and ideologies throughout its history (including the use of craniometry
to lend legitimacy to practices of slavery in the U.S.), Troy Duster argues that the financial incentive to biologize race continues to increase, and not merely in potential profits through the sale of race-specific pharmaceuticals (495).
Investing human evolution using digital imaging & craniometry
. American Biology Teacher, 69, 37-41.
Dissection or dismemberment repre-sented a fate far worse than death." Only executed criminals were given to scientists for study and such disciplines as phrenology craniometry
anatomy and anthropology required diversity in human remains to prove their theories.
In a striking passage occurring only paragraphs after the poetic tribute to Mount Shasta's imperial brow, Ridge raises the spectre of craniometry
: "human skeletons were found bleaching in the sun, some leaving no trace of the manner in which they perished, while others plainly showed by the perforated skull that the leaden ball had suddenly and secretly done its work.
Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, methods of describing and anthropologizing the body, such as craniometry
and serology, were used as scientific means to suggest that black people were less evolved than whites.
Feeding ecology of Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) and Long-eared Owl (Asio otus), based on craniometry
A student, for example, might examine the craniometry
of Samuel Morton or the eugenics of Charles Davenport.