Bell, (109) one of the few recent cases to discuss liability after transfer of land burdened by a real covenant, applies traditional real covenant law as advanced by the Restatement of Property hold that, after conveying the affected land, even the original covenantor
was not liable on a covenant to pay a proportionate share of paving costs.
In such a case, if the restraint exceeds the necessity presented by the main purpose of the contract, it is void for two reasons: First, because it oppresses the covenantor
, without any corresponding benefit to the covenantee; and, second, because it tends to a monopoly.(148) Taft's analysis provides a sound basis for distinguishing lawful joint ventures from those condemned by the antitrust laws.
Only a handful of his subjects--the Covenantor
politician, Sir Archibald Johnston of Wariston; the minister, Robert Baillie; the professional soldier, Sir James Turner; and the Highland warrior, Alasdair MacColla--achieved much in the way of fame or notoriety.
Imaginary time, where societies form and dissolve with the stroke of a covenantor
's pen, jostles against real time, as measured by Defoe's evenly paced journalistic style.(14) Crusoe names his servant "Friday" "for the Memory of Time" (7:239), making Friday both a permanent memorial to a magic moment and a living, expiring hourglass.
First, in the absence of any competition from the covenantor
, cash flows are estimated over the covenant's term (and any additional time period to reflect residual benefits that might accrue beyond this term).
The three said they were members of Y Cyfamodwyr (Covenantors
), a group campaigning for Welsh independence.