Surface roughening was followed by application of silane coupling agent
(Monobond plus, Ivoclar vivadent) on the surface of samples in both control (A) and experimental (B) groups and allowed to evaporate for 60seconds.
A suitable and appropriate method must be used to apply the silane coupling agent
. As discussed in the preceding section application of these agents mainly depends on the type of the resin and the fillers used in the composites.
First composite was manufactured as Wood-PVC Composite-Without Coupling Agent
As shown in previous work, coupling agents
with short aliphatic side chains of saturated carbon are generally adequate to strongly modify the surface energy of cellulose fibers  and cellulose nanoparticles , The results of contact angle measurements and MA data support previous reports.
Similar to tensile result, an advantage of adding coupling agent
was seen to occur at high contentof MCC fiber (10, 20 and 40wt%); the impact strength leveled off.
Karabela, "Effect of the amount of 3-methacyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent
on physical properties of dental resin nanocomposites," Dental Materials, vol.
To study the influence of coupling agent
for sepiolite nanofibers on mechanical properties of cis-polybutadiene rubber composite materials, five kinds of coupling agents
for sepiolite nanofibers are chosen based on the above optimal coupling agent
([gamma]-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane) addition amount.
The silane coupling agents
vinyl trimethoxysilane (AH-171) and N-(n-butyl)-3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (DYNASYLAN 1189) work as modifiers, and the molar ratio of the reaction is 3:1 (amorphous silica surface hydroxyl : silane coupling agent
treatment is one of the traditional methods, which can form a layer on the surface of tetrapod-like nano-ZnO whiskers to reduce van der Waals forces between nanoparticles to make tetrapod-like nano-ZnO disperse uniformly in a resin matrix.
The HMR coupling agent
is applied to the wood surface as an aqueous solution with low solids content (5%).
In methacrylic resin based dental composites, adhesion between the polymeric matrix and the reinforcing filler is usually achieved by use of the silane coupling agent
, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), a bifunctional molecule capable of reacting via its alkoxysilane groups with the filler and itself, and with the resin by virtue of its methacrylate functional group.
This study was aimed at evaluating the quality of coating of saline coupling agent
that formed on industrial glass fibers, after they were treated with Trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate silane, and to assess the feasibility of using silane treated industrial glass fibers for dental usage, due to their low cost and abundant availability.
, a coupling agent
accounts for only 1-3% of the total weight of composites.
For different surface conditions of the concrete, two types of silane coupling agents
were used in the preliminary slant shear testing to compare their contribution to the enhancement of the durability with hygrothermal exposure: (1) epoxy-functional silane coupling agent
(3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane, Acros Organics, 97%) and (2) amino-functional silane coupling agent
(3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane, Alfa Aesar, 97%).
The titanate coupling agent
, NDZ-201(isopropyl tri(dioctylpyrophosphate) titanate) and silane coupling agents
, SGSi998 (bis [-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] disulfide), KH560 ([gamma]-(2,3-epoxypropoxy) propyltrimethoxysilane), KH570 (3-(methacryloyloxy) propyltrimethoxysilane), and KH590 (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane) were supplied by Shuguang Chemical Group Co., Ltd.