Key words: Cotton stainer, Dysdercus koenigii, rearing methods, cylindrical perforated plastic bottles, moist cotton seed, integrated rearing technique, fecundity, biocontrol agent.
Recently, cotton stainer, Dysdercus koenigii Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae), which is commonly known as red cotton bug, has resurged as a destructive pest in cotton zone of Pakistan (Ahmad and Mohammad, 1983; Ashfaq et al., 2011; Jaleel et al., 2013).
A major reason for increased population of the cotton stainer is its faster egg development (Venugopal et al., 1994) and wide spread growing of transgenic cotton that have reduced insecticides application, whereas, before the introduction of transgenic varieties, cotton stainer was not even a minor pest of cotton in Pakistan (Shah, 2014).
Adults of cotton stainer, Dysdercus koenigii were collected during November, 2013 from cotton fields of Multan District and were kept at biological control laboratory.
Selected cotton stainer pairs were released in the plastic experimental rearing cages measuring 15x9x15 inches (L x W x D) having two aerations holes (3x3 inches each) covered with fine mesh.
Table I shows comparison of egg batches and number of eggs/batch laid, longevity and mortality of cotton stainer using different rearing techniques.
In the IRT method, the cotton stainer laid (6.00) significantly higher mean number of egg batches as compared to CSS (2.67), without soil (2.33) and statistically similar to CPPB (1.33) (Table I).
In IRT method, cotton stainer laid 56.00 mean number of eggs batch-1.
The cotton stainer's mean shortest longevity 2.33 days was recorded in CSS method.
Key Words: Cotton stainer, Dysdercus koenigii, dusky cotton bug, stink bug, warts, indentations, lesions, internal carpel wall, cotton boll.
In the year 2011, warts on internal carpel wall of cotton boll, sever lint staining, lintlCk and lesions followed by cotton stainer: an emerging serious threat for cotton production (CCRI,2011).In the present experiments, only warts were studied.
In puncturing an orange, acotton stainer often inserts its beak up to the full length with no visible wound.It has also been confirmed from the literature study that other than the cotton stainer there are also a complex of stink bugs that cause warts in the internal carpel wall of cotton bolls similar to the damage caused by the cotton stainer.
Cotton stainer: A future threat to cotton in Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan.ATWAL, A.S., 1976.