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This depicted the persistent left superior vena cava to a dilated roofed coronary sinus. The study also showed normal configuration of the right superior vena cava into the right atrium.
(5) description of the right coronary sinus having multiple openings was found.
It was decided to place a temporary electrode in the coronary sinus for rapid pacing, but again rapid ventricular pacing could not be achieved due to technical difficulties.
In this research, the "benign" are as follows: LCA high location, absent of LMA, absent of LCX, LCX originate from right coronary sinus, LCX originate from RCA, RCA high location; the "potentially serious" are as follows: LCA originate from right coronary sinus, LAD originate from RCA, LCA originate from RPA, RCA originate from LAD, Single coronary artery, RCA originate from left coronary sinus, RCA originate from left coronary sinus + LCA high location, RCA high location + LCA originate from RCA.
It is located close to and immediately above the opening of coronary sinus, directly above the insertion of the septal leaflets of tricuspid valves, below the posterior leaf of aortic valve, in the sub-endocardium of the median valve of Rt atrium.
(1) In addition, two other rare types have been described, the inferior vena cava form of the sinus venosus defect and the coronary sinus septal defect, also referred to as the 'unroofed coronary sinus'.
Right coronary artery had its anomalous origin close to the left coronary sinus and was occluded in the proximal segment (Figure 3).
Tight stenosis in the native coronary arteries limits the delivery of antegrade cardioplegia solution distal to critical lesions and hampered myocardial preservation.7,8 Retrograde cardioplegia through the coronary sinus can be used as additive for myocardium protection during CABG to overcome this limitation of antegrade cardioplegia.
The said foramen was 2.3 cm from tricuspid valve, 2.9 cm from superior vena caval opening and 2.3 cm from inferior vena caval opening and 1.2 cm from coronary sinus opening (Fig-2).
A new resynchronization therapy was identified to be done and PM upgrade was performed: due to the failure of coronary sinus lead implantation, the pacing electrode was implanted using a transapical approach (by a left minithoracotomy and transthoracic two-stage Seldinger-type puncture and dilatation of the apex) and it was placed on the interventricular septum (Fig.1D-F).
After its introduction into the left cephalic vein, the right ventricular pacing lead descended along the left side of the spine following the path of a LSVC and entered the right atrium through the coronary sinus (Figure 1).
The title of the article is: "Cost-effectiveness of the coronary sinus Reducer and its impact on the healthcare burden of refractory angina patients." The main findings of the study are that: the Reducer decreases healthcare burden of refractory angina patients and the associated costs across a range of European healthcare system perspectives; and that the Reducer is cost-effective according to the cost-effectiveness thresholds of the World Health Organization.