IVs should be accompanied by a bias analysis, so that readers can judge if the IV outcome relationship appears to be less confounded
than the exposure-outcome relationship.
is unarguably the weightier of the two, comprising nearly 1,000 pages worth of raucous and digressive discourse.
However, [X.sub.2]-Y is still confounded
due to coexposure by [X.sub.1] via the pathway [X.sub.2] [lest arrow] U [right arrow] [X.sub.1] [right arrow] Y.
Welsh Secretary Peter Hain, who led Labour's campaign in Wales, said: "Labour's result in Wales has exceeded expectations and confounded
our critics and opponents.
A set of sufficient combinatorial conditions have been considered by Nair and Rao (1941), which lead to the construction of confounded
designs of the general asymmetrical factorial experiments.
In her meditation on vulnerability and the public choice between grief-work and violence, Judith Butler concludes: "For if I am confounded
by you, then you are already by me, and I am nowhere without you." (1) Perhaps she had in mind the etymological implication that to be found together, is always already a puzzle.
The latter supernovas originate in regions that contain little dust, so the data aren't confounded
by dust's dimming effects.
As such, a crucially important implication is that in studying connections between various aspects of implementation and the effectiveness of programs, we need to be alert to factors that may be confounded
with differences in implementation.
But we admit that we're a little confounded
with this usage.
Throughout his career, Artschwager has confounded
categorical limits and plotted his own trajectory, all the while making the visual comprehension of space--and the everyday objects that occupy it--strangely unfamiliar.
Given the strengths of their study-notably, the use of two analytic approaches, including one designed to "circumvent unmeasured confounding and reduce its impact"-the researchers contend that "epidemiologic studies of condom effectiveness are probably confounded
by unmeasured differences between users and nonusers." Moreover, they conclude that "the likely result of such confounding is underestimation of the effectiveness of condoms."
Kevin and I were confounded
by and grateful for the hospitality and generosity shown to us, two strangers who wandered into town.
The spatial association was not confounded
by age group, nor did the strength of association differ significantly by age group.
The empirical validation was confounded
by several factors including student age and academic level, quantity and quality of tutor guidance, gender (the participants were all female--who are recognised  as preferring cooperative over collaborative learning in a group), and culture (the students were all Japanese, using English-as-a Foreign-Language).