The association between [X.sub.1] and Y from a single-exposure model is confounded
([b.sub.1] = [c.sub.1] + [c.sub.2][c.sub.3] = 0.24 instead of 0.2) as is the association between [X.sub.2] and Y from a singleexposure model ([b.sub.2] = [r.sub.12][c.sub.1]=0.18 instead of 0).
In her meditation on vulnerability and the public choice between grief-work and violence, Judith Butler concludes: "For if I am confounded
by you, then you are already by me, and I am nowhere without you." (1) Perhaps she had in mind the etymological implication that to be found together, is always already a puzzle.
They can ignore their self-appointed leaders' calls and confound
loyalists waiting for a reason to retaliate.
The author suggests that SATs (Standard Assessment Tests) do not provide the kind of data that would permit this interpretation, as they inevitably confound
word recognition with text comprehension.
It had to be young enough to still have a planet-forming disk but old enough to be past the time when radio emissions from the star's own early growth would confound
signals from the disk.
It controls for the most important determinants of achievement that will confound
peer estimates by removing student and school-by-grade fixed effects in addition to observable family and school characteristics.
Secondary cases would confound
epidemiologic investigations as well.
But variables such as temperature and rainfall can confound
the analysis, a problem not found with the pore-density method.
Set in the artists' enclave of Boston's South End, Stephen Kijak's debut feature introduces viewers to an idiosyncratic grouping of relatives, friends, lovers, and exes who support, challenge, and confound
They are abstract representations of the curvature of the universe, and like the universe, the sculptures confound
If so, they write, the result could be unanticipated accumulation of toxicants that would confound
safety predictions of seemingly harmless chemicals.
Composed of multiple perspectives within a single frame, they elude stability and confound
the viewer's habit of locating him- or herself a relation to what's shown.
To further confound
this, the levels of endosulfan, again as described by Saiyed et al.
And Edmondson's sensitively rendered nudes, typically the province of academically trained artists, further confound
the misguided conflation of self-taught and naive.
If general unrestricted study populations are selected, they should be large enough and diverse enough to permit careful adjustment for individual-level characteristics that may confound
the relationship between health end points and pollution levels.