In qualitative research, four quality indices help the reader evaluate the integrity of the findings (Hunt, 2011; Marshall & Rossman, 2006): credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability
took place through journal writing and ongoing reflection.
TABLE 1 Strategies for Establishing Rigor in Qualitative Research Strategy and Description Criteria Addressed (a) Prolonged engagement Confirmability
Extensive involvement in the field with sample to develop and sustain relationships before, during, and after data collection.
Finally, to ensure confirmability
, a reflexive journal was developed where we made regular entries during the research process.
These include the following trustworthiness criteria: credibility, transferability, dependability, confirmability
, integrity, fit, understanding, and generality (Belk, 1989; Flint et al.
A framework for establishing trustworthiness includes attending to credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability
Furthermore, to ensure confirmability
an audit trail was developed (Polit and Beck 2006).
These are credibility (internal validity), transferability (external validity), dependability (reliability) and confirmability
(objectivity) (Shenton, 2004).
We kept a detailed audit trail of transcripts, codebooks, member-checking responses, and notes to ensure confirmability
The components of trustworthiness are credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability
(Maykut and Morehouse, 1994: 146).
To ensure dependability and confirmability
(integrity) of findings, the data collection tool was pretested and modified based on the pretest-study feedback.
This criterion on confirmability
was satisfied in order to reduce biases.
Lincoln and Guba's criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability
were used to establish the research rigour (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).
Finally conclusions were drawn by adopting a constant iterative process by re-visiting research questions transcriptions and matrices by a set of researchers by putting each other's interpretation to the test of plausibility sturdiness and confirmability
We established trustworthiness by addressing the criteria of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability
(Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993).