The work provides the first evidence that some cnidarians
, which are virtually blind, can "hear." They have a good ear, too, apparently differentiating among various planktonic pedestrians by the audio frequency of their "footsteps." Moreover, cnidarians
appear unique among animals for their use of a primitive sense of smell to fine-tune their hearing organs to a few key frequencies.
For the functional position of HO, amino acid sequences of HO from cnidarians
, teleosts, human, insects, polychaeta, ascidians, and Syinbiodinium were retrieved from the nr database of the NCBI.
The results of the aforementioned studies, along with our observations of reduced MI in response to increases in temperature and pC[O.sub.2] levels, underscore the potential role of the cnidarian
host in mediating symbiont division.
Symbionts have been shown to pass between host cellular compartments during host oogenesis or in larvae in a range of cnidarians
(Benayahu et al/., 1992; BenayahuandSchleyer, 1998: Hirose etal., 2000,2001; Davy and Turner, 2003; Marlow and Martindale.
live as endosymbionts in various hosts, including many cnidarians
(e.g., corals, sea anemones, jellyfish).
No direct homologs to these stem cells have yet been discovered in the other cnidarian
classes, where transdifferentiation of epithelial cells is thought to support regeneration and cell turnover (Steinberg, 1963; Curtis and Crowden, 1974; Black and Riley, 1985).
Apoptosis and autophagy as mechanisms of dinoflagellate symbiont release during cnidarian
bleaching: Every which way you lose.
To our knowledge, this is the first documented occurrence of a planula hatching in a cnidarian
. Whether this encysting stage is a form of diapause (i.e., a dormancy stage or delay in development in response to adverse environmental conditions) remains to be examined.
The polyps have the typical cnidarian
structure of an external epidermis and an internal gastrodermis, which lines the polyp cavity (Fautin and Mariscal, 1991).
This is the first report to localize any enzymes in an octocoral, and the first to detect enzymes in the clonal tissue between polyps in any cnidarian
(hard coral, soft coral, or hydroid).
A staging system for the regeneration of a polyp from the aboral physa of the anthozoan cnidarian
Neurocnidocyte synapses have long been recognized, and they resemble typical cnidarian
synapses in terms of both the size and number of the synaptic vesicles (Westfall et al., 1998).
Furthermore, the FMRFamide antibody likely stained only a subset of RFamidergic cells and networks, as several distinct RFamides have been described in cnidarian
tissues (Grimmelikhuijzen et al., 1996, 2002).
Allorecognition triggers autophagy and subsequent necrosis in cnidarian
Nikki Traylor-Knowles on research projects examining the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cnidarian
innate immunity using the cauliflower coral (<em>Pocillopora damicornis</em>) as a model species.