We hypothesized that (1) the numbers of juvenile fish have significantly increased, (2) the abundance and biomass of copepods and cladocerans
have decreased, and (3) the zooplankton consumption by juvenile fish is higher than that by adult planktivores.
Currently, a large number of organisms (both wild and model) are used as bioindicators in pollution assessment studies in aquatic ecosystems; the most commonly used are fish (marine and freshwater), bivalves (marine), cladocerans
, rotifers, macro-crustaceans, plants, and birds, among others (Zhou et al., 2008; Li et al., 2010; Minier et al., 2015; Colin et al., 2016).
(2005), Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the freshwater cladoceran
Daphnia magna exposed to redox cycling compounds.
Whereas, the cladocerans
followed the same pattern as of copepods but were least abundant.
, diazinon at the concentration from 0.18 to 0.30 [micro]g x [L.sup.-1] caused adverse effects on the survival of D.
For example, the combination of competition, predation, and temperature are important in structuring predaceous cladoceran
dynamics in Lake Michigan (Cavaletto et al.
Successful establishment of the Ponto-Caspian alien cladoceran
Evadne anonyx G.O.
Successful larval rearing of many fishes has been reported including cladoceran
species (Mollah et al., 2009; Mehrajuddin et al., 2010).
Daphnia carinata (Class: Crustacea, Order: Cladocera) popularly known as water flea is a preferable food item for many freshwater larval fishes.
Many authors have emphasized zooplankton as live food in general, particularly, Copepods and Cladoceran
Considering that crustacean (copepod and cladoceran
) records were not complete and that they presented themselves in extremely low densities in cold seasons, they were not included in GAM analysis.
A population dynamics analysis of the cladoceran
disappearance from Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada.