This notion imperatively accounts for the strict reliance on independent financial-year calendar by financial and other corporate bodies for operations distinctive from civil year
merely observed for record purposes.
On the other hand, whereas I agree with the author that the exactitude argued by Neugebauer and Parker may have been overstressed, and that "[f]actors other than slippage of the Egyptian civil year
against the observable sky" were undoubtedly present, it remains the case that the two American scholars clearly indicated the imprecise nature of the ancient Egyptian visually based records in the final pages of their Egyptian Astronomical Texts I (Providence and London: Lund Humphries, 1960).
While this coincided with the beginning of the civil year
, it wasn't always strictly observed.
Although he incorrectly associated the October sunrise with the beginning of the Egyptian civil year
, which migrated through the seasons, his inspired and pioneering analysis confirmed that a small, open-air chapel to the side of Abu Simbel's main entrance is targeted on wintersolstice sunrise.
The church year was a "moveable feast", starting on the first Sunday in Advent, the civil year
was even more moveable at various times starting on December 25 and March 25 before 1752 brought it into line, with the historical year starting on January 1.