1) A common story about the discovery of the fever-reducing properties of this tree's bark centers on the wife of a Viceroy of Peru, Countess Ana of Chinchonm who contracted malaria in 1638 and was reputedly cured of fever by a powder made from cinchona bark
2) Since the first widespread use in the mid-sixteenth century of the first known antimalarial--quinine isolated from cinchona bark
in 1820--resistance has emerged to one drug after another.
He also makes his own ginger beer - ginger, lemon, sugar, water and champagne yeast - and tonic water from boiled-down cinchona bark
with lemongrass and seasonal flavors, clove, cinnamon and cardamom for winter and tangerine peel and juice, lemongrass and cardamom in spring.
The teacher may wish to research herbal medicine prior to the lesson to offer specific examples of how conventional drugs originated from plant sources such as aspirin from willow bark, digoxin from foxglove, and quinine from cinchona bark
While quinine was not isolated in pharmacological form until 1820, cinchona bark
had been known by Europeans since the early seventeenth century as a cure for malaria in all its various forms, known then by such archaic names as the ague, tertiana, quartana, and double quartana fevers.
However, no sooner had he reached the Tambopata valley than a former Peruvian army officer alerted locally elected officials to Markham's purpose and began whipping up the Indians who made their living from stripping cinchona bark
in the forest.
For example, willow tree bark contains salicylic acid, aspirin's active agent; cinchona bark
has malaria-fighting quinine; foxglove digitalis treats congestive heart failure; rosy periwinkle has leukemia-fighting chemicals; and the evergreen ephedra is commonly used in decongestants.
Oral anticoagulants may be potentiated by danshen, a Chinese herb, and also by bromelain (Bromelainum), cinchona bark
(Cinchonae cortex), ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo folium), garlic (Allii sativi bulbus), and feverfew.