Another surmise was that APOA4, a 46-kDa high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is secreted from the small intestine in response to lipid absorption and chylomicron
Clearance of VLDL from the plasma by the LDLR is mediated by apoE, but chylomicron
remnant clearance is more complex.
promote intestinal absorption of lipopolysaccharides.
In patients with mutations in the LPL gene, dietary fat (triglyceride molecules) cannot be broken down and so causes chylomicrons
, which carry triglycerides around the body, to accumulate in the blood.
Various types of bioactive molecules have been incorporated into reconstituted chylomicron
structure for delivery purposes.
remnant, containing mainly cholesteryl esters, then travels back to the liver.
High cholesterol intake modifies chylomicron
metabolism in normolipidemic young men.
The human apolipoprotein E (apo E) is a serum glycoprotein consisting of 299 amino acids found in circulating chylomicrons
remnants, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) (1).
However, triglyceride and chylomicron
levels can rise after a diet rich in MCT, and water alone can increase drainage by 20% in some patients.
Candidate enzymes and metabolic processes that could conceivably play a role in accounting for the finding of low levels of TFAs in the serum phospholipids of the Fulani include: chylomicron
synthesis and secretion in the intestine, the specificity of lipoprotein lipase, the specificity of transporters that facilitate the uptake of fatty acids across the plasma membrane of cells, the activity of acyltransferases involved in synthesis of triglycerides, and the rate at which TFAs are oxidized by the various beta-oxidation pathways.
Double-blind controlled study on the effects of dietary diacylglycerol on post-prandial serum and chylomicron
triacylglycerol responses in healthy humans.
These particles are released into the lymph in the thoracic duct, finally ending up in the liver where the chylomicron
particle is disintegrated and the content is used in the synthesis of non-polar lipids such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters.
Upon treating cultured human intestinal cells with oleic acid, the research team observed significant secretion of LPS together with the chylomicron
particles, a phenomenon that was not observed when the cells were treated with short-chain butyric acid.
Quantitative studies of the metabolism of chylomicron
, triglycerides and cholesterol by liver and extrahepatic tissues of sheep and dogs.
Also created in this process are smaller, atherogenic, cholesterol-rich VLDL and chylomicron
remnants, diagnosable by an elevated VLDL-C.