The principal fetal abnormalities in congenital toxoplasmosis (CTX) are classically described as the triad of chorioretinitis
, intracranial calcifications, and hydrocephalus.
with vitritis (intravitreal injection of 5-10 [micro]g/0.1 mL sterile water) 3.
Messaoud, "Linear pattern of West Nile virus-associated chorioretinitis
is related to retinal nerve fibres organization," Eye, vol.
It may affect various ocular structures and manifest with anterior or posterior uveitis, vitritis, retinitis, Chorioretinitis
, optic neuritis, and/or macular edema.
Ocular manifestations seen in HIV-associated neurosyphilis include posterior uveitis, panuveitis, posterior placoid chorioretinitis
, retinal vasculitis, and, on rare occasions, bilateral optic neuritis [3,6].
The differential diagnosis includes Stargardt disease, cone dystrophy, enhanced S-cone syndrome, pericentral retinitis pigmentosa, syphilitic placoid chorioretinitis
, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), posterior scleritis, traumatic retinopathy (commotio retinae), posterior uveitis, hydroxychloroquine toxicity, and autoimmune retinopathy [18-22].
Ophthalmologic evaluation for chorioretinitis
was interpreted as normal.
The various manifestations among diabetics in our study are DR (18.8%), combined retinopathy (2%), branch retinal vein occlusion (0.6%), branch retinal artery occlusion (0.2%), retinal detachment (1.6%), macular hole (0.8%), chorioretinitis
(0.4%), age-related macular degeneration (1.6%), and optic atrophy (1%).
In infants, congenital toxoplasmosis is associated with neurologic defects, neurocognitive defects, and chorioretinitis
resulting in serious symptoms like blindness or mental disability (Torgerson and Mastroiacovo, 2013).
For example, severe central nervous system sequelae (hearing loss, seizures, or chorioretinitis
) have been reported following congenital cytomegalovirus infection later in pregnancy, with the highest risk following first trimester infection (8).
Indocyanine green angiographic features in tuberculous chorioretinitis
. Am J Ophthalmol.
Ocular manifestations include nongranulomatous iridocyclitis, chorioretinitis
, or residual lesions suggesting previous iridocyclitis or chorioretinitis
such as posterior synechia, complicated cataracts, lens pigmentation, chorioretinal atrophy, optic nerve atrophy, and secondary glaucoma.
Relentless placoid chorioretinitis--a new entity or an unusual variant of serpiginous chorioretinitis
? Arch Ophthalmol.
Table 1 Classification of uveitis Type of uveitis Location State of inflammation Anterior Iris Iritis Ciliary body Anterior cyclitis Iris and ciliary body Iridocyclitis Intermediate Vitreous Vitritis Hyalitis Pars planitis Posterior Choroid Choroiditis Retina Retinitis Neuroretinitis Choroid and retina Chorioretinitis
Retinochoroiditis Pan-uveitis All of the above All of the above Table 2 Prednisolone acetate 1% Prednisolone sodium phosphate 0.1-0.5% Fluorometholone 0.1% Rimexolone 1% Loteprednol etabonate 0.5% Table 3 Immunosuppressive drugs Table 3 Class Examples Antimetabolites Azathioprine Methotrexate Mycophenolate mofetil Alkylating agents Cyclophosphamide Chlorambucil Antibiotics Cyclosporine Tacromimus Rapamycin Dapsone Adjuvants Bromocriptine Ketoconazole Colchicine
The transmission rate of maternal infection to the fetus is estimated to be about 45%; of these, 60% are sub-clinical infection, 9% resulting in death of the fetus and 30% have severe damages such as hydrocephalus, intracerebral calcification, chorioretinitis
and metal retardation [4,5].