Based on OCT4 immunoreactivity, the GCTs can be divided into 2 groups (Table 7): OCT4positive GCTs, including seminoma and embryonal carcinoma, and the OCT4-negative group, which includes YST (Figure 8, B), spermatocytic tumor, and choriocarcinoma
Modulation of estradiol synthesis and aromatase activity in human choriocarcinoma
JEG-3 cells exposed to tetrabromobisphenol A.
Moreover, there were no cases of malignant teratomas, choriocarcinoma
or other rarer tumours during the study period.
are among the rarest of the gonadal germ cell tumors associated with elevated [beta]-HCG.
The tumor showed areas of conventional adenocarcinoma [Figure 3] with focal areas of cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophoblastic differentiation, consistent with a gastric choriocarcinoma
Embryonal and nongestational choriocarcinomas
are rare malignant germ cell neoplasms found in prepubertal girls to young women.
15,16 The unfortunate finding is presentation of all cases of choriocarcinoma
in advance stages, giving insight about the fact that front line health care providers lack knowledge about symptomatology and simple diagnostic modalities for choriocarcinoma
which is 100% curative if diagnosed and treated timely.
However no embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma
was seen in the present study as the number of cases and the duration of study was small as compared to the 9 year study duration and the relatively large sample size of Ahmad's study.
Burned-out tumour of the testis presenting as retroperitoneal choriocarcinoma
Table 1: Health Canada-approved Oncological Indications Drug Health Canada Approved Cancer Indications Standard Chemotherapy Cisplatin Bladder, ovarian, testicular Methotrexate Acute lymphocytic leukemia, breast, bladder, choriocarcinoma
, gastric, head and neck, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, metastasis of unknown primary, osteogenic sarcoma, leptomeningeal spread of malignancies Targeted Therapy Bevacizumab Colorectal, lung (NSCLC), brain Cetuximab Colorectal Crizotinib Lung (NSCLC) Panitumumab Colorectal Vemurafenib Melanoma Note: Many of the agents above have numerous uses in non-approved indications.
7 Suzuki T, Ino K, Kikkawa F, Uehara C, Kajiyama H, Shibata K, Mizutani S: Neutral Endopeptidase/CD 10 expression during phorbol ester-induced differentiation of choriocarcinoma
cells through the protein kinase C and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent signaling pathway.
A unique consideration in patients with dysgerminoma or choriocarcinoma
is the possible diagnosis of XY gonadal dysgenesis, or Swyer syndrome.
Nonseminomas are developed from mature reproductive cells, usually seen in the third decade of life and histologically they represent a mixed type of tumors, such as embryonal cell carcinoma, choriocarcinoma
, yolk sac tumor and teratoma.
It is known to cause severe foetal abnormalities, elevated risks for spontaneous abortion, pre-eclampsia, haemorrhaging, molar placentas and choriocarcinoma
- a form of cancer that occurs in the uterus.
CHM is the most common precursor to choriocarcinoma
and heterozygous moles carry an increased predisposition to transformation.