Systemic administration of a nerve growth factor conjugate reverses age-related cognitive dysfunction and prevents cholinergic neuron
atrophy," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
These critical neurons, called basal forebrain cholinergic neurons
, help the hippocampus retrieve memories in the brain.
For example, in aged rodents, impairments in learning and memory have been associated with an age-dependent decline of cholinergic function in the basal forebrain |5~, and these cholinergic neurons
undergo age-dependent atrophy as well |6, 7~.
This study showed that mtDNA levels are higher in the surviving cholinergic neurons
of the brainstem, but with both cell-types that undergo profound degeneration during Parkinsons disease.
These results indicate that GBE treatment may be neuroprotective for cholinergic neurons
in BCCAo-induced CCH.
The team used opto-genetics, a newer research method using light to control cells in living tissue, to stimulate specific populations of cholinergic neurons
during the experiments.
Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons
(BFCNs) project widely throughout the brain.
Targeting the cholinergic neurons
is compelling because their degeneration is known to contribute significantly to the memory loss.
The second key challenge, he said, is the need for constant exposure to cholinergic neurons
that compose the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) while avoiding exposure to untargeted neuronal populations.
in the basal forebrain and brain stem pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT) areas project and diffusely innervate the entire neocortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and the midbrain (1).
Developing brain cells get their signals from the tissue that they reside in, and the location in the brain we chose directed these cells to form both GABA and cholinergic neurons
Sympathetic division of the peripheral nervous system signals cholinergic neurons
to stimulate sweat gland secretion.
There is also loss of cholinergic neurons
in regions of the brain known to be involved in learning and memory (Clader & Wang, 2005).
4,6,7) The exact mechanism by which these actions occur is not completely understood, but CB-1 receptors are commonly found in conjunction with acetylcholine transferase which marks cholinergic neurons
supporting the theory of CB-1 receptors in the regulation of intestinal motility.
Estrogen receptors colocalize with low-affinity nerve growth factor receptors in cholinergic neurons
of the basal forebrain.