14], Many techniques have been developed for biliary tract evaluation, such as laparoscopic ultrasonography, dye cholangiography
, and near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography
In case that the bile duct injury is noticed during cholecystectomy itself, and that experienced hepatobiliary surgeon is available, intraoperative cholangiography
should be performed and repair of bile duct injury immediately started.
Effect of intended intraoperative cholangiography
and early detection of bile duct injury on survival after cholecystectomy: population based cohort study.
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis: comparison between MR cholangiography
and direct cholangiography
in the evaluation of neonatal cholestasis: initial results.
Watanabe, "Ultrasonically guided cholangiography
and bile drainage," Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, vol.
Diagnosis methods for cirrhosis are physical examination, laboratory and liver function tests, CT, ultrasound, liver biopsy and cholangiography
(contrast dye is introduced intravenously for a clearer bile ducts X-ray examination) .
, F hepatica can cause biliary dilatation with single or multiple small filling defects.
The gold standard for the diagnosis of PSC is the typical "beaded" appearance of the biliary tree on cholangiography
caused by alternate stricturing and proximal dilatation of the bile ducts.
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a relatively new noninvasive diagnostic technique for direct visualization of the biliary ducts through images similar to those produced in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
Five months after transplant, the patient was taken to cholangiography
due to a laboratory test showing a pattern of cholestasis.
Each patient underwent detailed preoperative assessment to define the extent of the bile duct injury, including a multiphase computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
(PTC) with biliary drain placement.
How reliable is intraoperative cholangiography
as a method for detecting common bile duct stones?
The patient underwent an endoscopic retrograde cholangiography
(ERC) which showed a large filling defect [Figure 1] in the common bile duct, consistent with a large biliary stone.
The success of biliary reconstruction include the complete eradi-cation of intra-abdominal infection complete charac-terization of the injury with cholangiography
use of correct surgical technique and repair performed by an experienced biliary surgeon.